The temperature of the water was then recorded to the nearest 0.1⁰C. Then the melting points of phenylacetic acid, o-anisic acid, and benzilic acid were determined by the use of a Mel-Temp. The unknown sample was obtained from the chemical stockroom. A small scale of crystals from unknown was placed in a test tube with the following solvents: cyclohexane, hexane, toluene, diethyl ether, ethyl acetate, isopropyl alcohol, methanol, or water, to determine the appropriate solvent for the unknown. If the solute was wholly dissolved in the solvent before heating, it was recorded as a bad solvent.
Copper, magnesium, iron, and zinc were all tested in the same five solution compounds; which included hydrochloric acid, sulfate, magnesium chloride, iron chloride, and zinc chloride. Observations of chemical changes within the reaction were recorded to describe the results of the reaction and each metal's reactivity. An example of a single replacement reaction is the Statue of Liberty, which has copper on the outside and iron as an inner support. As time went by, the copper started to react with air and form a verdigris coat, or a bright bluish-green patina. Meanwhile, a single replacement reaction between iron and verdigris takes place so that Verdigris on the outside is replaced back to copper but the iron support is oxidized and rusted.
They change from the temperature of the container (which is not always room temperature) to room temperature. This means there might be slight variation in the temperature of the substances used for the experiment. Temperature affects the rate of collision by adding or lessening the amount of kinaesthetic energy for particle collision. Thereby affecting the rate of reaction. Wait for substance to adjust to room temperature before use.
To prevent this from happening, the hot plate should not exceed 130˚C, so no matter what ketone was isolated, it would not evaporated off. At this point I found that if the hot plate was at 147˚C the solution boiled more vigorously, meaning that my ketone hade a boiling point of 147˚C, which was close to the known boiling point value for 3-heptanone, 146˚C. The hot plate was turned down after this was noticed. After the solution was heat, approximately for five minutes, the mass was found for the bottom layer, which was 2.27g, and the percent yield was calculated. The percent yield was determined by taking the mass of the final ketone and dividing it by the original mass of the alcohol.
Use a stopwatch to track the time of the combustion of ethanol. While the water within the beaker is being heated, use a stirring rod to stir it. Put the fire out when 4 minutes have elapsed. For safety precautions, let it cool off a bit before using the scale to measure and record, the final mass of the alcohol burner containing the ethanol. Subtract the mass of the alcohol burner gained in step 4 to achieve the final mass of the alcohol.
Figure 6: Diagram of temperatures in Beaker 2 (Part II) In the Part II of our experiment, Beaker 2 was covered with a plastic wrap and Figure 6 shows some oscillations of temperatures in that area. PROCESSING DATA PART I The effect of a Plastic Cover Beaker 1 Temperature (°C) Beaker 2 Temperature (°C) Temperature Difference 0 Minute 24.1 23.1 1 5 Minute 27.4 27.9 0.5 10 Minute 26 25 1 15 Minute
Subsequently, we attempted preliminary examination by choosing 5-methoxy -2-phenyl oxazole (2a) as starting material to proceed whether Friedel–Crafts reaction. Although the normal conditions which used Lewis acid such as AlCl3 or TiCl4 with TFAA in DCE did not proceed to acylation, the reaction of introducing trifluoroacetyl group at the C4-position of oxazole without Lewis acid gave substituted oxazole (4a). Contrary to our expectations, isolated oxazole had been not trifluoroacetylated derivative (3a), reaching rearrangement compound (4a) in one step．After our optimization of the acylated condition, the use of 1.3 equivalents of TFAA and THF as a solvent and condition of the temperature at 60 degrees for 22 hr led 90%
SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF Mg-Cu-Zn FERRITES NANOPARTICLE BY CO-PRECIPITATION METHOD OXALATE AS PRECURSOR M.SATYA VANI Lecturer in Physics D.N.R.College, Bhimavaram Abstract Ferrite nanoparticles of basic composition Mg0.40,Cu0.25,Zn0.50Fe2O4 were synthesized through co-precipitation wet synthetic method by using oxalate as precursor at 90°C then filtered and washed with distilled water. After drying, heat treatment was carried out for 3 hours at 600°C and the resulting compounds were characterized for structural properties using X-ray diffraction [XRD], scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy [FT-IR]. The XRD result shows that all prepared samples crystallite size are in the range of 30 nm to 60 nm and lattice constant in the range of 8.20 to 8.40 nm. Fourier Transform Infra Red Spectroscopy results clearly indicate the Mg-Cu-Zn nano Ferrite are synthesized. Differential scanning calorimeter graphs shows the phase formation of all the samples.
Colloids And Suspensions ADITYA MAAN (14045007), GAURAV BARAK (14045032), MANOJ DHAKER (14045052) INTRODUCTION A colloid is a substance which is microscopically dispersed throughout another substance. The word colloid comes from Greek word kolla, meaning glue thus colloidal particles are glue like substances. Colloidal particles pass through filter paper but not through a semipermeable membrane. Colloids can be made settle by centrifugation. Molecules of a hydrophilic colloid have an affinity for water molecules and thus when they are dispersed in water they become hydrated.
The crude sample was heated at the 46° C in the hot air oven (see Figure 9) and the temperature of water bath was kept at 50° C in order to maintain the constant temperature during magnetic treating. 2. The crude was treated for 1 minute at different magnetic fields (6500, 7500 and 8500 Gauss) for 3 times (see figure 10) to ensure the repeatability of the field. 3. Finally, the sample was placed in Rheometer which was maintained under constant temperature (46° C) and shear rate (34 s-1)for 150 minutes (2 hours 30 minutes).