A new study by the Community Service Society in New York City estimated that only half (51.8 percent) of the African American men in that city were employed in 2003, compared to Latino men, 65.7 percent of whom were employed, and white men, 75.7 percent of whom were employed [.The study 's author, Mark Levitan, told the New York Times that this was the lowest rate of employment among African American men he had observed since 1979 . Levitan noted, "We 're left with a very big question.… Is this fundamentally a cyclical problem or is it more deeply structural? I fear that it is more deeply structural" .Racial gaps in male employment have been demonstrated in the Midwest, too, and in many inner cities. In Chicago, general Black-White health disparities are actually increasing.Levitan M. A crisis in Black male employment: unemployment and joblessness in New York City, 2003. Community Service Society.
Eight of the nine defendants got sentenced to death. The International Labor defense (ILD) started working on appeals for the defendants. “The ILD soon got into a conflict with the National Association for the Advancement of Colored people (NAACP)”.They were fighting for control of the defense for the next three years. When the ILD finally secured legal counsel for the defendants, they started a campaign for a release of the defendants. The case got so popular that there were marches being held across the world to petition a release of the Scottsboro boys.
Besides white women being paid less than men, more culturally diverse people are being paid even less than them. A USA today article on the gap says “The numbers were even worse for women of color, with black women earning 68% of what was paid to white men and Hispanic women’s pay amounting to just 62% of their white male peers, according to the IWPR.” click here for link. That is crazy considering segregation has ended, at least so we thought. Not only culturally diverse women, but all women are being paid less than men. As of 2015 women are only making between $0.76 and $0.80 for every dollar men are making.
Even through “Mexican’s is willing to work for low wages, they help build the railroads in the 1930’s, American’s were and still is afraid, of foreigners stealing jobs” (Blakemore). In the 1930’s the murder rate was one of the highest ever in America. A lot of African American’s and Mexican’s were being lynch or being charged with ridicules charges. “According to this article “In the 1931, police officers grabbed Mexican – Americans certain area, and many of them were U.S citizens, and shoved them into waiting vans. Immigration agents blocked exists and arrested around 400 people, who were then deported to Mexico, regardless of their citizenship or immigration status” (Blakemore).
1. What were the legal issues in this case? David Dunlap a 52 years old African American male applied for a job as a boilermaker with the Tennessee Valley Authority. Dunlap v Tennessee Valley Authority was a discrimination case brought to the District Court of Tennessee by David Dunlap for suspected unequal treatment and disparate impact. The suit claims that the Tennessee Valley Authority singled out Dunlap because he was African American.
In Jonathan Kozol’s “Still Separate, Still Unequal: America’s Educational Apartheid” he explains that the difference between the low class schools and the urban class schools inequality by the lack of importance, the low funds, and the segregation. Kozol admits that no effort is put into the minority public schools that are isolated and deeply segregated. “At a middle school named for Dr. King in Boston, black and Hispanic children make up 98 percent of the enrollment”(Kozol 349). The schools that are named after Civil Rights leaders shows no proof of what these people were trying to succeed. Kozol comments on the extremely low funds in these minority schools.
Some Attica prisoners began to identify themselves as political prisoners rather than convicted criminals. These events were the perfect concoction to create a four-day mass riot. The Monroe Fordham Regional History Center’s “Attica NOW!” collection contains interviews of Attica inmates who recount daily mistreatment from guards and rules that were abused by guards to punish inmates. These interviews also talk about the lack of educational opportunities and the fact that they were forced to perform slave labor (Slade). During the 1960’s and 1970’s President Nixon declared a war on drugs causing the demographic of criminals to shift as Attica was now a dumping ground for African Americans and Hispanics facing drug charges, causing Attica to become overcrowded, and increased the already poisonous racial atmosphere in the prison.
Mothers of young black teens have to remind their kids how to respond to law enforcement so that they won’t end up another statistic. Is this what America has come to? According to a Guardian study, African American males between the age 15 and 34 consists of more than 15% of deaths caused by the deadly force of police. (“Young black men killed by US police at highest rate in year of 1,134 deaths” 2017). On February 26, 2012, Trayvon Martin, a 17-year-old African American, was shot and killed by George Zimmerman.
The Black Lives Matter campaign fights over African American equality in the the area of police arrests. This campaign states that the level of African Americans arrested and in some cases shot, is significantly higher than white levels. This campaign can also become violent though, In August of 2016, the campaign targeted white families and burned their houses and cars in the area of Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Additionally, North Carolina government passed a law against transgender citizens. The law stated that transgender people are to use the bathroom of the gender they were born with, not the gender they identify as.
The black schools had less than half the government subsidy of white schools. The pay for blacks was a fraction of the pay for whites. African Americans were forbidden to go to town after dark or purchase beverages from stores owned by whites. Blacks couldn’t eat nor purchase goods from their restaurants; this was Adam David Miller’s realism growing up. Whites were incredibly privileged whether they believed it or not.