3.4 Selection of most sensitive strain to bacteriophages to make new stock culture Starting culture was prepared by inoculating 1ml (1×109 CFU/ml) stock Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis C2 culture into 25ml M17 medium in a test tube. The mixture was incubated overnight for 16h in a 32℃ water bath to get fresh Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis C2 culture. Inoculated the Lactococcus lactis ssp.
1. Label each well of a tissue culture treated 6-well plate appropriately for each cell line or condition being investigated. 2. Prepare 2x cell culture medium by dissolving 1 g of powder medium and 0.2 g of sodium bicarbonate in de-ionized water to a final volume of 50 ml. 3.
Medium and culture conditions Cells were grown in a 100-mL flask containing 25 mL into minimal medium supplemented with Eugenol for 2, 4 and 6 days incubation at 37 °C. The following Table 3. represents the composition of the modified minimal media used for biotransformation of eugenol (Muheim and Lerch, 1999). The pH of the medium was adjusted between 7.0 to 7.25 and autoclaved to obtain sterilized media for further
One that fluoresced green under UV light, and one that did not fluoresce green under UV light. The third colony was taken from the LB/kanamycin plate, its ability to fluoresce is unknown. For each culture 1 mL of cell suspension was taken and added to a separate micro centrifuge tube. The cell suspensions were then centrifuged at 10,000 RCF for one minute to pellet the bacterial cells. The supernatant was then removed without disturbing the pellet.
Figure-4: Microscopic views of Chlamydomonas oblonga at 400X Media Preparation The following media have proved suitable for the maintenance of cultures in test tubes at the SAG for many years. The recipes originate from E. G. Pringsheim and W. Koch, unless stated otherwise. It must be emphasized that the maintenance
After incubation sporulation was confirmed by microscopy following staining with 5% malachite green and 0.5% saffron malachite green. After reaching more than 80% of sporulation, spores were harvested by a mild agitation of Petri plates using a glass spreader after adding 5 mL of distilled water. (Torlak, 2014; Evelyn & Silva, 2016). The spore suspensions were centrifuged (3600 g, 10 min) and washed three times with sterile distilled water. The concentration of spores in the final suspension, determined by plating 100 μL of appropriate dilutions onto AAM agar, was adjusted to 106 spores/mL with sterile distilled water and stored at 4°C until used.
After solidification, 0.1ml of the inoculum was spread over the agar evenly using L rod. 6mm diameter of Whatman filter paper discs were soaked in plant extracts and dried out. Chloramphenicol and tetracycline antibiotic discs were used as the control. The discs were carefully placed on the inoculated plates and incubated for 24 hours. Later, the zone of inhibition around the disc was measured and
citri (Xcc), was provided by the Bacterial Citrus Canker Collection of National Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (NIGEB). The bacterium was cultured on YPGA (3 g/l yeast extract, 5 g/l peptone, 7 g/l glucose solidified with 15 g/l agar) at 28 °C for 48 h. A single colony was subcultured in YP medium (3 g/l yeast extract and 5 g/l peptone) on a rotary shaker at 180 rpm at 28 °C till OD600 = 0.3, i.e., 5 × 108 cfu/ml. To prepare the inoculum, the culture was centrifuged for 10 min at 5000 ×g and the pellet was suspended with dH2O to reach a concentration of 1 × 105 cfu/ml. For inoculation, host plant leaves were surface-sterilized with ethanol and the inoculum (500 µl of 1 × 105 cfu/ml) was injected into the parenchymal space on the abaxial leaf side. Control leaves were treated similarly
When nutrients are used by the body for energy, the amount of energy that the nutrients release are able to be measured in a unit called calories. One calorie, is equal to the amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of a gram of water by 1 degree Celsius. Most nuts grow on trees, including nuts such as: walnuts, almonds, pecans, macadamias, hazelnuts and Brazil nuts. Pine nuts also grow on trees. Peanuts although grow underground, so sometimes they are also called “ground nuts.” Things like pine nuts also grow on trees: they grown in the pine cone of some certain pine trees.
Derived primarily from the African oil palm, and its variants, palm oil is an edible vegetable oil, that now forms the basis of Malaysia’s palm oil industry. The palm tree, Elaeis guineensis was introduced to then Malaya in 1870 as an ornamental plant and by 1917, the oil palm started to be cultivated commercially. The oil palm is one of the most efficient oilseed crop in the world. According to Oil World 2013, oil palm can produce up to 10 times more oil per hectare than other oilseed crops, potentially achieving yields of up to 8 tonnes per hectare. In 2013, it produced 32.0% of global oils and fats output but only accounted for 5.5% of global cultivated land globally.