These pages from The Odyssey set an adventurous yet determined tone that is communicated by the antithetical; savagery versus purity. From the beginning, Homer starts off with a comparison by using metaphors and imagery. Lines 113-124 depict a land full of the immense and wild Cyclops. He describes how unkept and uncivilized they are by saying, “...without a law to bless them.”
When hearing this, Polyphemus prays to his father Poseidon, the king of the sea, to give Odysseus troubles during his voyage. He wants it to take a long time to get back home and him to only arrive there after a number of shipwrecks. He also wants Odysseus to be welcomed home to find out that his house had been invaded by men trying to replace him as king of Ithaca. If Odysseus had listened to his men telling him not to provoke the Cyclops, then Odysseus would not have been through these
In book 9, when Odysseus blinds the monster, the cyclops prays to his father Poseidon, and says “ If I am truly thy son and thou art indeed my father, grant that Odysseus the conqueror of Troy-the son of Laertes-whose address is in Ithaca, may never reach his home!”(Homer, 111) It is shown that one of the reasons that Poseidon hates Odysseus is because he blinded his son.
Hospitality not only is a major theme in ancient literature, but it also is significant in our world today. Hospitality is bringing someone into your home and providing him or her with shelter, food and water. How you develop a relationship with a guest and take care of a guest are key points in hospitality that are known as xenia. Xenia specifically is the guest/host relationship. Xenia is shown throughout many ancient literature stories in both good ways and bad ways.
Poseidon is one God against him. Poseidon does everything he can to keep him away from home till Odysseus learns a lesson that Poseidon was trying to get to him. Many Gods also try to help Odysseus, one very helpful one being the god of the wind, Aeolus. Aeolus gives him a sack of wind which helps Odysseus get home but the problem with that. You only get one use out of it so if you open it when you don’t have good timing.
Odysseus is the king of his land, and also a decorated war hero. However, when the war ends and he is away from home, neither of those titles fit him and he has no sense of self identity. Athena is then used to give him this self-possession, a characteristic that is essential to a hero. Odysseus is allowed to leave Kalypso’s island after Kalypso reluctantly agrees when Zeus orders her to let him go. Poseidon wrecks Odyssey’s ship, but Odysseus meets Ino, who gives him a veil that will keep him afloat.
Homer’s The Odyssey is an ancient Greek epic which chronicles the trials and tribulations of the crafty Odysseus as he journeys from the stallion-land of Troy to far-off Ithaca, spurred by the wrath and mercy of the gods. Upon reaching native soil, Odysseus must confront his final test; vanquishing the treacherous suitors which plague his palace. As with most classical Greek literature, The Odyssey has a deep foundation in mythology and within these religious aspects lies the motif of Xenia, a sacred code which governed the reciprocal relationship between host and guest. These overarching themes act as the linchpin of the narrative while providing valuable insight into Homeric society, in contrast with contemporary social principles.
Odysseus receives supernatural help to escape death, thus making him a survivor and someone who will always persist to become victorious when encountering evil. Athena, a goddess who constantly provides supernatural help to Odysseus asks “Why is Poseidon so enraged with you that he sows nothing but disasters in your path? At any rate, he shall not kill you however hard he tries … Here; take this veil and wind it around your waist with its divine protection you need not be afraid of injury or death” (Homer 97). Homer portrays Poseidon as evil because he tries to complicate Odysseus’ journey.
In the story of Odyssey, the plot is based off numerous amount of events that have to deal with the various themes featured in the epic. The author puts certain emphasis on a few specific themes in the poem through how he develops the characters, setting, and plot points. It is seen that the theme of hospitality is one of the motifs that is emphasized in Odyssey by Homer, for it is expressed consistently through the story. Corresponding with the elements of setting as well as the parts that fall into a Homeric society, the theme of hospitality is first shown through how the characters act towards each other.
Throughout the book Odysseus would undergo many challenges as well as life threatening situations in order to achieve his quest. He is a man who was both loved and hated by the god of Mt. Olympus. While others used their powers in his favor, some used them to hinder and if possible stop him from going home. For example due to his both his arrogance and conceitedness, the god Poseidon would cause for a rough voyage that would push him further from Ithaca and at one point cause a shipwreck that drowns his crew. One other notable trial of his journey was the encounter with the sirens.
Athena, being a goddess and the daughter of Zeus, has a lot of power. She right away uses this power to help Odysseus. At the beginning of the epic poem, Athena tells her father, Zeus: “‘But my heart breaks for Odysseus, that seasoned veteran cursed by fate so long-far from his loved ones still,’” (1.57-59). Athena helps by showing sympathy to Odysseus and asking her powerful father, Zeus, to assist Odysseus.
After composing a clever plan, Odysseus defeats the bloodthirsty monster and just as he is about to leave, his hubris gets the best of him and he begins to call out to Polyphemus mocking him, “If someone asks who did this, the name is Odysseus!” After Odysseus has finished mocking him, Cyclops cries out to his father, Poseidon to never let Odysseus get home. This results in Poseidon making Odysseus’ journey much longer. The events that transpired could have all been avoided if Odysseus wouldn’t have let his hubris get in the way. His actions were the reason his journey was prolonged because if he would have just left as he was initially planning to, he would have gotten home a lot sooner.
After blinding the ruthless Polyphemus, Odysseus called back to the Cyclope making it possible for him to call unto his father to curse Odysseus to have an agonizing journey home and to have his kingdom in disarray. Just giving Poseidon yet another reason to treat Odysseus badly and make his trip
My odyssey began three years ago. I did not even know it was going to happen, but after a couple months I realized I was in for a long tough journey. I am still on that journey, much like Odysseus was. My journey, like Odysseus, has had many challenges. In the Odyssey, Odysseus is faced with many challenges.
However, Zeus saw the two sides of the gods’ feelings towards Odysseus. “‘Great Odysseus/ who excels all men in wisdom... it’s the Earth-Shaker, Poseidon, unappeased,/ forever fuming against him..’” (1.78-83). Zeus created an equilibrium so that Poseidon could take out his anger on Odysseus through punishment, and Athena receives the duty of making sure Odysseus gets home to Ithaca.