How well Wes Moore describes the culture of the streets, and particularly disenfranchised adolescents that resort to violence, is extraordinary considering the unbiased perspective Moore gives. Amid Moore’s book one primary theme is street culture. Particularly Moore describes the street culture in two cities, which are Baltimore and the Bronx. In Baltimore city the climate and atmosphere, of high dropout rates, high unemployment and poor public infrastructure creates a perfect trifecta for gang violence to occur. Due to what was stated above, lower income adolescent residents in Baltimore are forced to resort to crime and drugs as a scapegoat of their missed opportunities.
Spatial mismatch is the phenomenon of people, usually black poor people, who are isolated into a neighborhood or ghettos that are far from the jobs and economic growth. There are many implications to spatial mismatch such as the potential workers lack of knowledge about jobs, these people do not have adequate transportation to the job, and there is generally a cost-benefit that discourages many workers from even attempting apply for jobs if they do know about them. When these challenges combine it creates the mass joblessness in ghettoes that lead to crime, drug abuse, and drug dealing. As William Julius Wilson notes, when high levels of joblessness afflict neighborhoods, there exist a lack of social organization or that thing needed to maintain the social order of said neighborhood. Formal and informal controls are all undermined by the lack of economic opportunities, which creates incentives to participate in crime and drug dealing.
Elijah Anderson’s commentary Code of the Streets describes the unwritten laws in urban neighborhoods. Anderson considers the code to be a response to the stigma of race, excessive drug use, lack of high paying jobs, and lack of hope for the future. Respect or “juice” is at the heart of the code and in this environment, an individual is defined by the respect he commands from others (Anderson 6). Anderson argues that the poor have a different system of values than the middle and upper classes. He describes families in the lower class as either “decent” or “street (Anderson 2).
People are even afraid to come near their neighborhood, they fear that they will be attacked. The residents of Mango Street are talked about as criminals, just because of their race and their poverty. As a result of being Hispanic, Esperanza and those around her are viewed by other, higher classes, as a minority. Hispanics at that time made less money and were seen as lessers compared to people in the higher class. Higher class people believed they were superior to her.
Police brutality is a everyday occurrence in cities especially, where large communities of color are concerned. Maybe this is why you hear so much hate against the police? Society doesn’t realize that Police brutality happens for one or more reasons. Police brutality must be stop because it is a way of unlawful death, a racial issue, accountability and it 's also against human rights.
Erik Larson uses this simile and strong words that place a vivid image to further emphasize how the city continues to get dirtier as time goes by and more people move to Chicago. Larson wrote how as the city grew in population and in size the more dangerous and filthy the city became. The simile “like pus from a wound” paints a vivid image in the reader 's mind on how dirty the streets of Chicago are by using a simile that the readers would understand. Furthermore, Larson also uses strong words such as “oozed,” “muck,” and “swelled” to further paint an imagery of the contaminated streets and to show the continued growth of the filth in Chicago. This simile further helps Larson create a better image of how the city of Chicago has become contaminated.
The high incarceration rate of Black Americans has pervasive and chronically negative stigmas regarding the social and economic vitality of the Black American community, such as a lack of democratic participation and violence within urban communities (Burris-Kitchen & Burris, 2011). According to Forman Jr. (2012), some of 5 the negative affects of systemic racism of Black Americans born into the hip-hop generation who have been convicted include the ineligibility of public assistance programs such as health care, food stamps, public housing, student loans, and some employment opportunities. Additionally, many of the individuals suffering from the stigma of incarceration come from backgrounds of disadvantage such as single parent homes, low
In the study “Racial and Class Divergence in Public Attitudes and Perception About Poverty in USA: An Empirical Study,” professor Francis O. Adeola analyzes existing data to determine if people themselves or a structural influence causes poverty (Adeola 56). Building upon the idea of structural poverty, Adeola contends “poverty rates tend to persist in the same neighborhood over many years” (61). For the other Wes Moore, this neighborhood was the Murphy Project Homes: one of the most dangerous places in Baltimore (Moore 18). Furthermore, he examines how “[t]he poor form a unique subculture,” reinforcing aspects of poverty (Adeola 61). The subculture that surrounded the other Wes Moore included the normalization of the presence of drugs and
From the perspective of urban planning and the socio-cultural structure of cities, the landscape shown in the 1991 John Singleton film Boyz n the Hood brings to mind one of the foremost problems in the field of planning: that of urban decay. More specfically, the film presents some of teh socio-cultural phenomena that contribute to urban decay, such as forms of systematic racism in American life, whereby marginalized minority groups, such as the African-American community are essentially segregated to specific communities, and the corresponding difference in social class, where working class and poor communities are caught in environments of urban decay. At the same time, by presenting the conditions for urban decay, the viewer can also think through some of the positions which could reverse the effects of urban decay. If urban decay is caused by isolation and segregation along racial and class lines, than positions which seek to negotiate these boundaries, for example, by focusing on improving the quality of life of the affected area, can be effective means to reverse the phenomenon. One definition of urban decay is the following: “Urban decay exists in an area where the
In the article written by Contenta et al. (2008), it was explicitly mentioned that D’Souza’s impoverished neighbourhood played a role in his involvement in illegal activity. This manifests a social structure theorist’s approach, claiming that individuals living in low-class areas are more likely to commit criminal offences. To further explain this theory, it can be acknowledged through two subtypes known as social disorganization theory and strain theory (Siegel & McCormick, 2016, p. 205).
The author expands his explanations with various sociological theories. Moreover, he discusses why the poor urban areas attract police officers to patrol them more often. The content of certain chapters is used in sociological and political explanations of police brutality. Holmes, M. D., & Smith, B. W. (2008). Race and police brutality: Roots of an urban dilemma.
Freddie was a young black male who underwent police brutality. After word got out about his situation, an uproar started around the city. According to Stolberg, a report for the New York Times, she wrote, “[many people] marched through the streets, clogging intersections” (Stolberg). This situation, of course, is much less severe than the issue addressed in the Kerner report.
Elijah Anderson, a Yale professor, developed the concept or theory entitled the “code of the street” which explains the reasoning for high rates of street violence among African-American juveniles in a Philadelphia community. The “code of the street” is the way of life for many living in poverty-stricken communities which attempt to regulate behaviors. Anderson observed that juveniles in inner-city neighborhoods who are exposed to racial discrimination, economic disadvantages and alienation from mainstream society may lead violent behavior. The strain, social learning, and labeling theories are all directly related to Anderson’s work.
Finding the perfect balance between the streets and education seems to be a difficult task. Moreover, the balance can account for why a high percentage of students in urban areas are not graduating high school or attending college. In addition, a second theme I found interesting in “Between the World and Me” were the fear that Coates talks about black people having. In Coates opinion, the fear is to blame for the majority of our actions. From beating children as a form of discipline to selling drugs on the street the fear is at the root.