It is a more often observed biotransformation pathway for small endogenous compounds, but also plays a role in the metabolism of macromolecules like nucleic acids. Compounds can undergo N-, O-, S- and arsenic methylation catalyzed by enzymes called methyltransferases, employing S-adenosylmethionine as the methyl donor.95,98 Amino acid conjugation reactions are a route of metabolism of xenobiotic carboxylic acids. The enzymes of conjugation reside in mitochondria. Mechanistically, it differs from the other conjugation reactions. It involves initial activation of the carboxylic acid moiety with ATP, generating an acyl adenylate and pyrophosphate.
Amir Ahemedin Ms.Buckley Genetics 11/06/15 Transformation of E.coli Lab Purpose The purpose of this lab is to genetically engineer the E.coli strain by introducing two genes, the green fluorescent protein gene (GFP) and the ampicillin resistant gene (AMP). Then observe whether or not the E.Coli strain would take up these genes and become fluorescent. Background Information In this lab, bacterial transformation was one of the three processes that occurred when genetic material is introduced to a bacterial cell. Bacterial transformation is important because it allows for the cloning and movement of DNA between strains. This transformation usually occurs within plasmids, which are closed circular molecules made up of double stranded DNA.
The roles are as follows for the bacterial cells, the structure flagella are the swimming movement of the cell, pili stabilizes the cells during DNA transfer, the capsules are used as protection for the cell when a method of killing or digestion is happening. The cell wall confers rigidity and the shape they have, the plasmic membranes are the barriers and the location for the enzyme systems which produces energy. The ribosomes like animal and plant is the factor for protein synthesis. The other functions like the Chromosomes and the plasmid make up the DNA of the cell. Explain how bacteria cells make energy for cellular processes.
The newly made mRNA strand travels out of the nucleus to a ribosome where the directions can be made into a protein. A ribosome is composed of one large and one small subunit that assemble around the mRNA. The mRNA now passes through the ribosome. Now, amino acid building blocks are carried into the ribosome attached to specific transfer RNA (tRNA) molecules. The small subunit of the ribosome arranges the mRNA so that it can be read it segments of 3 nucleotides.
• Enzyme Kinetics Enzyme kinetics Introduction It is the study of those reactions that are moderated by enzymes. In enzyme kinetics, the rate of reaction is measured and the effects of different conditions of the reaction are found out. Enzymes are protein in nature that moderate other molecules — the enzymes ' molecules . These target molecules bind to an enzyme 's activity site and are transformed into completed products through a series of steps known as enzymatic mechanism. These mechanisms can be divided into single-step and multiple-step mechanisms.
Moreover, this experiment makes me understand the role of gel electrophoresis in DNA preparation and analysis. Through the experiment of building DNA, I knew more about the composition of DNA, and the way and order of deoxyribonucleotides. Through the DNA transcription and translation experiments, I learnt that mRNA is the transmitter of genetic information. I also knew that a genetic code corresponds to an amino acid. This made me have a deeper understanding of the process from genetic information to protein.
Introduction: Enzymes are biological catalysts that increase the rate of a reaction without being chemically changed. Enzymes are globular proteins that contain an active site. A specific substrate binds to the active site of the enzyme chemically and structurally (4). Enzymes also increase the rate of a reaction by decreasing the activation energy for that reaction which is the minimum energy required for the reaction to take place (3). Multiple factors affect the activity of an enzyme (1).
Role of Enzymes in Metabolic Pathways Summary Metabolic pathways are a sequences of steps found in biochemical reactions in which the product of one reaction is the substrate for the next reaction . Metabolic pathways most likely happen in specific locations in the cell. The control of any metabolic process depends on control of the enzymes responsible for the reactions occur in the pathways. After food is added to the body, molecules in the digestive system called enzymes break proteins down into fats into fatty acids, amino acids, and carbohydrates into simple sugars (for example, glucose). Enzymes plays an important role in the different metabolic pathways .
Transfection: One of the methods of gene transfer where the genetic material is deliberately introduced into the animal cell in view of studying various functions of proteins and the gene. This mode of gene transfer involves creation of pores on the cell membrane enabling the cell to receive the foreign genetic material. Transfection can be carried out using calcium phosphate (i.e. tricalcium phosphate), by electroporation, by cell squeezing or by mixing a cationic lipid with the material to produce liposomes which fuse with the cell membrane and deposit their cargo inside. The choice of methods of DNA transfer depends upon the target cells in which transformation will be performed.
1. How does DNA encode information? DNA is a double-stranded helix composed of a phosphate backbone and deoxyribose, and encodes information by the sequence of its nucleotide bases, which are composed of adenine, thiamine, guanine and cytosine. DNA undergoes transcription, which produces single-stranded mRNA, which uses uracil in place of thiamine. Next step is translation, in which the RNA becomes a protein, which then can act as structural units or enzymes.