Literature Review On Experiential Learning

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Framework of the Study Cognitive Theory
Cognitive theory is the dominant theory in instructional design and many of the instructional strategies advocated and utilized by behaviorists are also used by cognitivists.
When designing from a behaviorist-cognitivist position, the designer will study the situation and sets a goal. Learning objectives are developed and individual tasks are broken down. In this approach, the designer selects what is significant for the learner to know and recognize, and tries to transfer that knowledge to the learner. Cognitivists consider learners develop learning through receiving, storing, and retrieving information. Through this idea, it is important for instructional designers or developers to carefully analyze
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The process is continuous, can begin at any of the stages, and there is no limit to the number of cycles one can make in a learning situation. In any activity, learners begin from a step and then continue to the end of the activity. This theory emphasizes that without reflection, we could simply continue to repeat our mistakes. This theory found that learners learn using IM in steps with the likelihood of developing one mode of learning more than the other. The characteristics of this theory are the concrete experiences, thru observation and reflection, thru abstract conceptualization and thru active experimentation. (Wambui,…show more content…
Experiential Learning Theory
Concept Cartoons
Concept cartoons are a new approach to teaching-learning and assessing created by Keogh and Naylor (1999). They feature cartoon style drawings showing different characters arguing about an everyday situation and are designed to intrigue, provoke discussion and stimulate thinking and may not have a single so-called answer.
A typical concept cartoon has the following features: visual representation of ideas; minimal text in dialogue form, alternative viewpoints on the situation, ideas are applied in everyday situations. They are tools that allow teachers to gain learner’s attention, visually focus them on the lesson and create an environment where learners can construct or reconstruct their views on certain topic. Concept cartoons are quick, simple and effective. They provoke discussion and stimulate thinking. (Mill gatehouse: 2014)
These cartoons can be used at the beginning of a lesson to examine learner’s prior knowledge-reveal their thoughts and force them to discuss a certain concept.
Fig.2. Concept Cartoons

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