Introduction Learning theories are the core guidance on planning the educational system. With the knowledge of the general principles,educators can manipulate their knowledge more efficiently to meet with diversity in learning circumstances. Theory by general definition is a the establishment and an explanation of the way brain acquiring knowledge. It is a sequence of a hypothesis that corresponding to each other which should be able to outline, clarify, predict or have control of the scenario. Learning theories defined as a description of learning and the approach towards the way a person obtain, assemble and use their skills and knowledge.
It also develops their abilities and attitudes. Learners should be motivated to learn and to take part in the learning process. Items of the target language shouldn't be presented as isolated items. The content should be connected to realistic situations that are related to their experiences and their personal
Conflict, differences, and disagreement are what drive the learning process. In the process of learning one is called upon to move back and forth between opposing modes of reflection and action and feeling and thinking. 4) Learning is a holistic process of adaptation. It is not just the result of cognition but involves the integrated functioning of the total person – thinking, feeling, perceiving and behaving. It encompasses other specialized models of adaptation from the scientific method to problems solving, decision making and creativity.
Many teaching strategies and learning activities address this notion. For example, Problem-based Learning Theory (an amalgamation of Cognitive and Social Constructivist theories, by Piaget (1920) and Vygotsky (1978), respectively), is a hands-on, active learning technique that lets students be independent thinkers and problem-solvers through investigation, where the teacher is a facilitator. Other models which guarantee student engagement include Discovery Learning by Bruner (1961), Experiential Learning by Kolb (1984) and 21st Century Skills. These models provide maximum opportunities for students to experience with materials and resources, collaborate, socialize, analyse and solve problems related to real life. Teachers can employ instruction which is clear, communicate their objectives vividly, design a plan using a variety of strategies and resources, ask questions frequently and effectively and have brain-storming sessions, attention grabbing starters, pre-while-post technology hands-on, debates, role plays, enquiries, case studies, research, multimedia presentations, group work, simulation by audios and videos, games, interactive plenaries, inventories, quizzes etc.
The Effects of Perspective-Taking on Perceptual Learning 1. Introduction The perspectives that we adopt when interacting in the world play an integral role in the processes of thinking and learning. This notion is implicit in the way people speak informally about learning, such as when a tutor says to a struggling student "Maybe it would help if we approached this from a different perspective." In some areas of education, such as in history or literature, understanding perspectives is an explicit focus of the curriculum. And in everyday contexts, it has been suggested that perspective-taking is the primary mechanism with which humans are able to learn from others.
Teaching assistant talks through the process step-by-step to show the children how things are done, for example, how to make, confirm or change predictions. Teaching assistant can model re-reading of the text if the meaning is unclear and can model working out a difficult word. Writing can be modelled by using the whiteboard. Teaching assistant can model how to use strategies to help reading and writing. Through the modelling process the children should get confident enough to talk, think, share and reflect; they should want to be let free to do their
Does learner-centred teaching motivate learners to learn? What is learner-centred teaching? Learner-centred teaching, which at times referred to as student-centred teaching and learner-centred instruction, is a key concept in constructivism; a theory in which "learners construct and reconstruct knowledge, in order to learn effectively" (A. Attard, E. Di Ioio, K. Geven, 2010). Students are the protagonists in learner-centred teaching, unlike teaching-centred teaching in which teachers take the centre stage. In learner-centred learning, students "construct knowledge through gathering and synthesizing information and integrating it with the general skills of inquiry, communication, critical thinking, problem solving and so on" (Perumal, 2015).
Learning refers to any relatively permanent change or modification in behavior resulting from practice and or exposure conditioning. It could be motor, visual, or conceptual. Learning theories provide a theoretical outline that describes how information is absorbed, processed and retained during learning (Schunk, 2015). In this paper, I will discuss the learning theories of behaviorism, cognitivism, constructivism, and humanism and some principles within these theories that apply to learning like classical and operant conditioning, scaffolding, schemas, situated cognition, Bloom’s taxonomy, as well metacognitive activities. With research findings, we can learn what it takes to use different parts of our brain for different learning theories.
It encompasses other specialized models of adaptation from the scientific method to problem solving, decision making and creativity. Then the fifth proposition is “Learning results from synergetic transactions between the person and the environment”. In Piaget’s terms, learning occurs through equilibration of the dialectic processes of assimilating new experiences into existing concepts and accommodating existing concepts to new experience. Following Lewin’s famous formula that behavior is a function of the person and the environment, ELT holds that learning is influenced by characteristics of the learner and the learning space (Kolb and Kolb,
Then the third assumption follows closely on new content and can be presented through learning tasks (Vella pp 2-5). In the assumption of learning theory we are making assumptions about learning from different perspectives. From an educator’s perspective, we have made assumptions about the needs and readiness of learners, and assumed that there are best teaching and learning strategies for particular learners under particular learning context. Experiments and research have been conducted to validate the findings. From a learner’s perspective, the learners have assumed that they would be able to achieve the learning goals based on certain learning strategies, that suit their particular learning styles, and under