Cognitive Development In Early Childhood

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The importance of Cognitive Development in early childhood Middle childhood generally allude to the developmental period between ages 6 and 12, it is an important period in children’s cognitive, social and emotional development (Ntshangase, 2011). Ntshangase (2011) explained that during this period, children can form their thoughts in multi-dimensional ways and that they are able to think about objects in more than one perspective. An important characteristic of this stage is that the slower average growth rate of children compared to the earlier preschool period and the later period of adolescence. During this stage, the average annual growth rate is in terms of height and weight is about 6cm and 2kg individually. On average, the child’s…show more content…
Physical development during middle childhood assumes an important role because it enables children to participate in a range of activities that are important for their development in areas such as sport or physical exercise. Play can be beneficial, because play is an important way in which children learn what is appropriate in their cultural context. Children often play traditional games that have been passed down across generations. They may also learn skills that are anticipated from them in their particular cultural setting. According to Louw et al (1998), middle childhood can be regarded as a sensitive period of development of self-concept develops from their experiences and represents how they see themselves. Self-esteem also plays a major role because children’s self-esteem is affected by their family circumstances and experiences. For example, research indicates that unpleasant family circumstances, such as the loss of a parent, have a significant influence on a child’s self-esteem (Plotnik. 1999). Moreover, schools are effective for socialization during middle childhood as it is here that culture norms and values are conveyed. Ultimately school provides the child with the knowledge and skills essential for adjustment in adulthood (Behr et al, 1900, in Mwamwenda,…show more content…
Infants and young children have lower mental capacities that are transformed into higher mental capacities through communication with others. A lower function includes reflexes, reactive attention and associative memory (Watts et al, 2009). According to Vygotsky higher mental functions are language- based devices that are exclusively human. These are complex cognitive processes such as symbolic thought, focused attention and deliberate remembering (Watt et al, 2009). Vygotsky believed that children gradually obtain higher mental functions through guided instruction from other, more equipped individuals in their environment. Higher mental capacities exist in the world external to the child and over the course of development, the child internalizes
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