In accordance with Piaget’s theory, the learner interacts with objects and events available in the physical and social environment and therefore comprehends the objects or events using the process of assimilation, accommodation and equilibration. The learners, therefore, construct their own conceptualizations and use them to generate solutions to problems. This theory also suggests that humans create and construct knowledge as they try to bring meaning to their experiences. In the differentiated classroom, teachers should facilitate the learning process by organizing learning activities and using variety of aid material according to the level of students’ cognitive structure to enable them to construct knowledge through their
To facilitate learning of children, patterns of learning can be modified and more elements of cognitive training can be added in play of students. On the other hand, different students may achieve different levels of cognitive skills. It is important for teachers to notice the difference of progress of students. Different levels of intervention of framing of knowledge can be adopted by teachers, which influence students’ understanding of knowledge (Arcidiacono, & Perret-Clermont, 2009). Next, since only performance of one subject is observed, it is suggested to enlarge the scale of research and observe the performance of different participants.
It also encourages the cognitive apprentice approach where reflective practices of learner (learner-self interaction) and the interaction between the learner and the facilitator are crucial, similar to my personal lens. The function of context is another aspect of my personal lens aligns with the established theory where contextual learning is the key. Using authentic contextual experiences that are decided by learners drive the learning experiences in my kind of classroom. Finally, with regards to the role of facilitators, both views support that educators should provide guidance from reliance to gradually move to independent
This is because changes in the behavior of students is the impact on students ' thinking process. This theory focuses on the process of knowing and acquiring knowledge through information processing by means of discussion, reasoning, problem solving and brainstorming activities. This theory is also closely associated with the process of storing information. A psychological cognitivism said that learning involves the use of memory, motivation and thinking and therefore software designers must consider the materials for learning should ensure that there are activities for the various learning styles10. In addition, the teaching strategies should highlight important information and content to enhance the learning process.
The socio-cultural perspective of SLA asserts that language development is based on input coming from the environment and More Knowledgeable Others (MKOs). It is through these interactions that learners get exposed to the target language and develop vocabulary that will be employed when speaking, writing, listening, viewing, and lastly, reading. If the learner does not have enough interaction using the target language and if the environment does not provide sufficient English language input for learning, language proficiency would be affected. It can be said, then, that those who have not been exposed sufficiently to the second language as much will have weak vocabulary and will have a hard time comprehending what is being read and given. This will certainly affect academic performance especially that ESL classrooms nowadays tend to be constructivist in nature.
In this regard, Shah (2009) states that nonverbal behaviors are the exposition and performance of both techers and students in different activities in teaching and lerarning process. I agree that behavior is an action of an individual which are used for specific purpose. But in the context of teaching and learning process, the action and strategies used by either teacher or student represent their behaviors that may influence teaching and learning. In general, we can say that there are different behaviors used in teaching and learning environment. The division of behaviors can be done with differently such as positive behavior and negative behaviors, verbal behavior and nonverbal behavior and so on.
Language objectives refer to language skills that learners are expected to acquire in the classroom. Objectives that are concerned with strategies for communicating, learning, and critical thinking are referred to as "strategic objectives". Learning process are “conscious processes and techniques that facilitate the comprehension, acquisition, and retention of new skills and concepts” (Chamot and O’Malley 1987). According to Chamot and Michael O’Malley, these may include metacognitive strategies (such as selective attention), cognitive strategies (such as summarizing and elaboration), or socio-affective strategies (such as questioning for clarification). Socio-affective objectives refer to changes in learner’s attitudes or social behaviours that result from classroom instruction (e.g.
Therefore, students learn because of consequences. The social motivation is that students learn through modeling, communication of expectations, and direct instruction or socialization by significant others, especially parents and teachers (Brophy, 1987) . Social-cognitive theory, advocated by Albert Bandura, gives more comprehensive overview of human cognition in the context of social
- The role of the teacher is that of facilitator and guide. Therefore, students are encouraged to construct meaning through genuine linguistic interaction with others. To sum up, communication language teaching can help students to use the target language as much as possible. This approach places great emphasis on helping students create meaning rather than helping them develop perfectly grammatical structures. As mentioned above, my personal language teaching methodology may be described as a mixed method.
In order to understand a text the reader must be able to comprehend the vocabulary used in the piece of writing. If the individual words don’t make the sense then the overall story will not either. The student can draw on their prior knowledge of vocabulary, but they also need to continually be taught new words. The best vocabulary instruction occurs at the point of need. Parents and teachers should pre-teach new words that a student will encounter in a text or aid her in understanding unfamiliar words as she comes upon them in the writing.