Crucial to the theory is the idea that cognitive dissonance always results in some kind of change. While this may seem intuitive, exactly what kind of change it will produce is not always obvious. The theory builds on previous research that found that when someone is forced to argue for a position they don’t believe in, their opinion shifts to support what they argued for. It was predicted that incentives would amplify this effect and that the greater the incentive, the greater the shift. However, that was found not to be the case.
For clarity and emphasis, this study is anchored on Canale and Swain’s (1987) communicative competence theory. According to Canale and Swain (1987), there is a need of communicative competence as a synthesis of an underlying system of knowledge and skill needed for communication. In their concept of communicative competence, ‘knowledge’ refers to the conscious or unconscious knowledge of an individual about language and about other aspects of language use. According to them, there are three types of knowledge: knowledge of underlying grammatical principles, knowledge of how to use language in a social context in order to fulfill communicative functions and knowledge of how to combine utterances and communicative functions with respect to discourse
Festinger replaced the term “consonance” instead of consistency and “dissonance” instead of inconsistency. Dissonance is very powerful when we are doing something that against what our belief tell us. Cognitive dissonance is a very powerful motivator which will often lead us to change one or other of the conflicting belief or action. Aristotle says that, human being is a social animal that has different conflicting shades in its personality, taught process, conducting patterns and executing preferences. When conflict occurs, if it is not powerful enough to be solved, people will tend to avoid and stay away from the problem and this might increase the level of conflicts and discomfort.
Application of complexity theory is been suggested by many researches where it emphasize on non linearity occurs out of organisational change that are to be overcome by the organisation through effective management. Chaos theory involves learning stability from instability in the environment. Chaos theory and Complex Adaptive system theory are put into practice together while implementing the organisations strategic plan (Weichhart, 2013). Dissipative structures are not quite constructive they are rather destructive in nature it doesn’t do anything that’s quite productive. This structure is less informational, predictable, strings of momentary states, self ordered not self-organised and regular (Abel, 2009).
“Before the truth can set you free you need to recognize which false belief is holding you hostage” -Anonymous Striving to achieve consonant cognitions or consistent behaviour always in our daily lives poses great difficulty as the media, our experiences and social interactions are constantly influencing our attitudes, behaviour, beliefs, knowledge and decisions made. Furthermore, through cultural diffusion such harmonious, internal consistencies are threatened, incongruence occurs and our perceptions of things change thus resulting in dissonance. According to Baron, R. A. et al (2008), cognitive dissonance—a consistency theory, is an internal state that results when individuals notice inconsistency between two or more attitudes; two or more decisions or between their attitudes and their behaviour. The theory coined by Leon Festinger (1957), is a universal phenomenon, experienced by many across all cultures. Due to the linkage between our behavior and our attitudes there is often a gap created between what we feel on the inside and what we show on the outside.
Automatic thoughts are usually not full sentences, but rather shorthand (Murdock, 2013). Whether it is functional or distressing depends on the content, but are always reasonable to the thinker. We are not aware of automatic thoughts, but rather the emotions associated with them (Murdock, 2013). Automatic thoughts result from core and intermediate beliefs and automatic thoughts are easier to change (Murdock, 2013) . There are three types of automatic thoughts: distorted thoughts that are contrary to available objective evidence, accurate, but wrong distorted conclusion, and accurate but dysfunctional (Beck J. S.,
Scheufele gives the opinion about quasi-statistical sense, that it is not accurate all the time in society. He also claims that there not be an accurate time when person’s perception may be wrong about the relative subject or matter of discussion. Scheufele confirmed that “perception of opinion may be the change from real opinion environment, this thing changes people willing
The recipient is affected by superficial level of the communication for instance visual and social factors. The more arguments are going to be given to the receiver, the greater probability that he or she will be persuaded. The receiver is not motivated or involved, then it is recommended to include in the message attractive source factors. In contrast to central processing route, it is quantity of arguments that is crucial, receivers persuaded by the peripheral route are passive, they are not highly involved in the topic and the message, they are not likely to investigate and pay much attention to the main information, and due to those facts That is why attitudes shaped or reinforced in such way, are mostly of short
Behavioral Economics (By Souhardya Roy) Introduction: Behavioral economics uses psychological experimentation to develop theories about human decision making and has identified a range of biases as a result of the way people think and feel. BE is trying to change the way economists think about people’s perceptions of value and expressed preferences. According to BE, people are not always self-interested, benefits maximizing, and costs minimizing individuals with stable preferences—our thinking is subject to insufficient knowledge, feedback, and processing capability, which often involves uncertainty and is affected by the context in which we make decisions. Most of our choices are not the result of careful deliberation. We are influenced by readily available information in memory, automatically generated affect, and salient
Overconfidence can be a good virtue in decision making as for the decision maker there are greater chances of success, confidence gives drive for greater success(Emmons, 2017). In making decisions one ought not to be too certain of outcomes or about everything working their way this is essential to avoid disappointments later. For example, making a choice between outcome A and B, one is less likely to believe that choice A leads to outcome B. also there is a high probability of overconfidence in believing that outcome B is preferable to outcome C, this will ensure developing logic before finally making a choice. Finally, the decision maker will realize becoming less overconfident is possible but being right all the time is not always the