For this paper, I chose to write about the Little Albert experiment The overall importance of this study was to discover if a human could be conditioned to develop a bias, fear, or generalized fear of an animal, object, or person based the stimuli placed around the involved person, animal or object. Watson & Rayner (1920) suggested that “in infancy the original emotional reaction patterns are few, consisting so far as observed of fear, rage and love, then there must be some simple method by means of which the range of stimuli which can call out these emotions and their compounds is greatly increased.” This means that before any conditioning occurs, the subject should have a pure response, but after minor and simple experimentation and conditioning,
Based on this research, the present study’s results concerning emotion are confusing when considering the evidence highlighting the importance of eye gaze and fearful emotional perception. However, it may be more pronounced in individuals with trait anxiety (Mathews et al., 2003), which could explain the conflicting evidence. The effect of mundane realism may also contribute to this effect, as anxious participants reliably respond to danger-related stimuli much more than controls (MacLeod & Mathews, 1988), therefore fearful expressions alone may not be sufficient to illicit such a response in non-anxious individuals (Mathews et al., 2003). As such, it is recommended that further research be conducted by differentiating participants based on anxiety levels,
As a result of evolutionary psychology’s scientific importance, insights have been given into areas that have functioned outside of evolutionary sciences. It has been suggested that personality characteristics like low emotional stability and low empathy have a damaging effect on ones mating success. Furthermore this effect is more significant when such personality features rise to dangerous levels and are categorised as personality disorders. Evolutionary theories have been used to explain the increased frequency of such maladaptive traits. Thus this study adds to the importance of the models contribution by hypothesising that in familial cultures there was poor selection pressures on personality characteristics that predict success in intimate relationships.
What accounts for the divergent and intriguing results observed in this recent research? Although within-person analyses appear to be essential to reveal the negative self-efficacy effect, it seems untenable to conclude that all positive effects of self-efficacy on performance observed in the vast body of existing research are little more than artifacts of between-persons methodology. As Bandura and Locke (2003) noted, the voluminous research on self-efficacy has utilized varied methodologies, including designs in which self-efficacy was experimentally altered both between persons and within persons. With few exceptions, these studies have found self-efficacy to positively relate to subsequent performance. These results, when considered alongside those reported by Vancouver and colleagues (Vancouver & Kendall, 2006; Vancouver et al., 2002, 2001), highlight the variable nature of the self-efficacy and performance relationship, as both positive and negative relationships have been observed even among studies conducted at the within-person level of analysis.
Understanding how the body’s stress response works, recognizing the signs and symptoms of stress overload, and taking steps to reduce its harmful effects can lead to a better quality of life for the client. Question 2: Question Stem: People who frequently carry out unreasonable rituals to overcome their anxiety are said to have a (an) Response Option (correct answer in CAPS): A) Generalized anxiety disorder. B) Panic
Previous studies have looked at the Catharsis Theory, rumination, and distraction when studying anger and aggression. The Catharsis Theory states that if an individual vents their anger their psychological state will improve. In this theory, by acting aggressively you are purging those angry feelings, thereby, leaving you in a more stable state of mind. The theory also states that viewing aggression has the same effect. Another theory on aggression is the Cognitive Neoassociation Theory.
To begin with, there are areas of weakness pertaining to the research and measurement of trait theory. Even though Eysenck himself is aware of these, they nevertheless remain troublesome. For example, in investigating the links between individual responses and cortical arousal (Eysenck, 1991), he points out that "different systems of cortical arousal are activated in different people" (p. 90). Some individuals may respond with excessive sweating, while others respond with increased breathing. In other words, how could one be sure which arousal system is activated in a particular individual at a specific time?
memories the method can be used in psychological institutions, to help those whom are traumatized to stifle the memory and prevent it from affecting their future behaviors. Additionally, a better grasp of how memory, is encoded or lost will provide better aid to those with disabilities linked with memory. Flashbulb memories are defined as memories of emotionally significant events that people usually remember with more vivid details and accuracy than normal events (King, 2013). Psychologists Lanciano, Curci, and Semin (2010) conducted two studies investigating the accuracy and the amount of details remember of flashbulb memories, in which they determined those placed under stressful and highly emotional conditions do in fact recall the event
Universally, coping is defined as “constantly changing cognitive and behavioral efforts to manage specific internal and external demands that are evaluated as taxing or exceeding the resources of the person” Lazarus and Folkman (1984). Therefore coping can be seen as an important conciliator between the stressful events and the emotional and performance related reaction (Crocker, Kowalski, & Graham). Coping has been given a number of different conceptualizations. Earlier it was believed that it was an unconscious phenomenon (*Freud, 1936), whereas in the recent times it is considered as being more of a cognitive and a conscious operation. (endler & Parker,1989; Laarus and
According to one theory, overprecision springs from the desire to relieve internal dissonance, or a state of tension regarding the right decision or course of action. People in a stressful state of tension feel motivated to relieve this dissonance, even if this requires them to change what they believe. There are psychological and social forces that push us toward unwarranted self-assurance. But can we be blamed for wanting to believe that we know what is true and false? If we find out that we were mistaken about something, we move in that instant from the old belief to a new belief.