Examples include money, praise, attention and getting good grades (Weiten, 2014). Operant conditioning is therefore the association between responses and their consequences. Thorndike’s principle states that favourable consequences are more likely to promote the behaviour whereas unfavourable consequences cause the person to stop that response/behaviour (Meyer et al., 2003). Operant conditioning in the case of the Lotter siblings’ behaviour would therefore propose that if their parents were very domineering and/or authoritarian, they would have been positively reinforced for listening to them and punished when they did not. This may have distorted their personality development in the interests of obtaining positive responses for submissive behaviour.
According to Wagner, humanistic approach is primarily a reaction to the two major views of humanity which are the Freudian perspective and the behavioral perspective thus humanitaristic approach is the “third force”. Humanistic approach highly gives emphasis to the individual that learning how to learn is more important than acquiring factual knowledge. Teachers can play their role in helping the students how to learn and their thinking gives emphasis rather than teachers’ teaching determination. Likewise, the Multiple Intelligence (MI) theory is also a very useful model for developing any systematic approach for nurturing and training learners and respecting their individual needs and strengths within a classroom setting. According to Emmer and Evertson (2009) multiple intelligence aids teachers in easily creating more personalized and diversified instructional experiences.
As per this theory, Scholars states that the human actions are directed by unconscious motivation and internal drives as the ego which is the personality structure of a person. Oliveira et al. (2011) cited in Durso et al (2016), here, in the study of motivation there are many theories of motivation in the process of development and application of motivation for example the Theory of Needs (Maslow, McClelland, and Alderfer), the Two-Factor Theory (Herzberg, Mausner, and Snyderman), the Theory of Expectations or Instrumentality (Vroom), the Reinforcement Theory (Skinner and Connellan); the Theory of Goal Setting (Locke and Bryan), the Equity Theory (Homans and Adams). For the study of motivation in study sector, the theory developed by Deci and Ryan “the Self-Determination Theory” is used because of its application to educational sectors. Deci and Ryan (2008) states that the Self-Determination theory is an empirically based on human motivation, development and
When people symbolize their experiences, it gives structure, meaning and continuity to their lives. Another distinctive quality of social cognitive theory and an important point in this theory is the capacity for self directedness and forethought (that people plan a course of action and set challenges and goals that guide their future activities). It is said that after we adopt some personal standard, our subsequent actions, behavior motivation are regulated by the positive and negative consequences of those standards. We all engage in things that provide some form of satisfaction and self worth, and tend to shy away from actions that devalue the self (Pajares, 2002). Behavior can be predicted by predicting perceived self efficacy (a person’s beliefs about the capabilities) over actual accomplishments,
Sternberg encourages learners to know their own learning style so that their can make the most of their strengths, while compensating for their weaknesses (2005). The name of this theory evolved to become the Theory of Successful Intelligence (2005) with a focus on optimising success in life by deftly manipulating our environments. He gives the example of how law is divided into solicitors and barristers in the UK and Ireland to allow different people to play to their strengths. He encourages discovery learning, allowing learners to explore ideas that go beyond the traditional curriculum (2002). A learner’s belief about their own abilities often stem from their ‘achievements’ at school and impacts hugely on the choices they make later on in life (Sternberg,
Proactive is roles and relationships in life. To have a can do attitude. The ability to subordinate an impulse to a value is the essence of the proactive person. Reactive people are driven by feelings, by circumstances, by conditions, by their environment. But proactive people are driven by values "carefully thought about, selected and internalized values".
Superstein (1994) noted in his study of highschool students' thoughts on encouragement and discouragement, teacher attitudes toward students was among the foremost necessary factors that influence them in school-"students need truthful, friendly, and caring academics. They expect their academics to point out them respect and to be encouraging" (p. 188). Tuckman and Sexton (1991) found that among school students, encouragement improved student self-efficacy of performance and exaggerated motivation in an exceedingly study on voluntary task performance. Similarly, Van Hecke associate degreed Tracy (1987) incontestable that youngsters UN agency received encouragement by an adult whereas engaged in learning tasks persisted longer, exaggerated their expectations of success, and were additional willing to try difficult task than youngsters UN agency worked alone on these learning tasks. Despite the importance of the idea, Cams and Cams (1998) noted that encouragement has not been studied sufficiently as a concept: A construct therefore basic to a college of thought as encouragement is to Adlerian psychological science, left with such varied definitions within the eyes of the final
Similarities Even when Bruner was following Piaget’s theories, his research only linked to Vygotsky with both their insistence that there’s no separation between the mental and social aspects of growth. The similarity was that Bruner’s belief is that learning is an active process and that learners need to develop their own knowledge and ideas using their current or previous knowledge. While Vygotsky belief was the necessary role of social interaction in cognitive development. The bottom line is; socialization increases the learner’s knowledge because they will have intrinsic motivation to the social interaction. Differences One significant difference between Bruner and Vygotsky is that Bruner believes that students learn better if they obtain information and knowledge themselves through active participation and teacher only giving support at the right time.
There are several motivation theories that can conclude the behaviors for both Wilkerson and Agua. As we can see from the context above, Wilkerson and Agua tried to achieve their goals using different approaches and fortunate enough for Agua, he is succeeding. This is because we can deduce that Agua is self-actualized person. Referring to Maslow’ Hierarchy of Needs theory, self-actualized people are those were fulfilled and doing all they were capable of. The growth of self-actualization refers to the need for personal growth and discovery that is present throughout a person’s life.
This article mainly argues that school psychologists are the primary sources in assessing students who have specific learning disabilities. The main points of the article is to show the importance of school psychologists and their roles in helping with children with specific learning disabilities. The topics covered in this article are mainly how school psychologists determine the type of assistance children with specific learning disabilities need. This article is primarily about the important roles of school psychologists and them determining the eligibility of children with specific learning disabilities and what teaching practices to use for