are studied from two perspectives; the moral-philosophical perspective and the sociological perspective (Colnerud, 1997) . Community psychology is in a community or group setting, a psychologist can lose focus as to with whom their loyalty and responsibility lies. Precedence may then be given to the most vulnerable, but this may leave gaps within the group (Seedat, Duncan, & Lazarus, 2001). South Africa has a limited language resource within the delivery of optimal mental health care and the use of interpreters is common place. An interpreter is legal not bound to follow the same ethical code as the mental health professional (Streere, 1984).
He may experience guilt or feel responsible; this is a manife station of a subject objectifying himself and a consequence of repressive hypothesis by the therapist. In a typical Fruedian society, objectification becomes natural. The psychoanalyst whom the society has certified as capable of treating patients has enor mous power to influence the subconscious mind of his subject, leading him onto a path of normalcy. Freud claims his theory to be essential to the welfare of the individual and society. Due to various underlying assumptions in psychoanalysis, it may sometimes lead to unfair practices of marginalising in society.
The South African context provides some unique issues when trying to apply psychological theories/treatments into a diverse multi-cultured country. This issue is largely due to the .of these differences may include: Language, age, culture, religion, gender, sexual orientation, educational level, race, income bracket, class, and other belief systems/social constructs. In the field of clinical psychology there are two options to address these above mentioned issues. Reflective practice and therapist-client matching are both viable options. However, because of South Africa’s unique context this essay will side with reflective practice as the more suitable option.
2) Progression and Regression The definition of progression is the process of success development over a period of time whereas regression is similar to recidivism as its definition is the opposite of progression as it means relapse, failure or fall-back. Progression and Regression must work together in order to fulfil self-actualization and self-realization. Progression is when one adapts to the external world along with allowing their mentality flow forward however regression is the adaptation in the internal world where one allows their mentality flow backward. This, again, suggesting the important contribution of both the past and future in
Skinner (1938) alludes to the potential of a response to be created from the collection of data, as opposed to a biological process. This discovery coined the term operant conditioning. Holland (1992) states that Skinner’s experiments “showed that the control was in the consequences of the behaviour”. According to Skinner (1950) cited in Woolfolk et al (2013), behaviours can be segregated into two forms of environmental influences namely
Behaviourism: Behaviourism assumes that a learner is fundamentally flaccid, replying to environmental incentives. Behaviour theorists states learning as nothing more than the attainment of new behaviour. In this theory Language acquisition is the result of stimulus-response activities where factors that facilitate are imitation, replication, reward and reinforcement. Cognitivism Cognitivists are related with ‘cognition’ and how it marks individual ‘learning’. Cognitive Learning Theory suggests that the different methods regarding learning can be elucidated by scrutinising the mental progressions first.
Bias on the other hand bias according to Barnard, & Grobler (2016), is the result of error in the statistical or technical development of the assessment measure. According to SIOPSA’s Guidelines bias refers to how assessment measures are developed and researched whereas fairness relates to how the assessment measure is used in practice (as cited in Society for Industrial and Organisational Psychology of South Africa, 2006). Fairness and bias is something that is of importance in any assessment process. Professionals using psychological assessments should be aware of the legal and ethical guidelines that govern assessments and ensure that the assessments and process used is fair and free from bias towards all individuals taking part in the assessment process. In order to ensure legal and ethical standards, Society for Industrial and Organisational Psychology of South Africa (2006), highlighted the following: • Assessment measures should not be used on individuals for whom the assessment is not
Although identities can be beneficial, group member’s often look for negative parts of an out-group in order to make themselves look better. Identities can also create issues such as prejudice and racism. By looking at it from an anthropological viewpoint, we can see how when a person comes into a place where they do not share the same identity it can cause an uproar and judgement. People from the majority identity will look for reasons and force the outcast to be looked down upon. Having an identity can help in a child’s well-being, it can allow them to feel as though they belong.
Social forces, that which influences and/or pressures one to behave, think or act in a certain way within a society, have evidently and distinctively influenced Makaye’s overall attitude (Ferrante, J. 2013). Within Makaye’s society the complex framework of societal institutions, recognised as social structure, was one attributed to an immoral apartheid regime (Kendall, D 2013). It is evident that Makaye fundamentally disapproves of the agents of socialisation which teach an individual what one needs to know in order to participate in society (Kendall, D 2013). In Makaye’s case, the agents during the apartheid regime damagingly affected him in the way in which they taught him to feel inferior
aming can lead to attributions that justify poverty, which can lead to an acceptance of inequality and the legitimisation of the current social and economic system in South Africa (Weiner, Osborne & Rudolph, 2011). Attribution theory states that individuals aim to predict and control their behaviour by attributing the behaviours of others and other groups to internal or external factors (Whitehead, 2010). These attributions can be motivated by many variables such as political affiliation, dominant ideology, life experiences, culture and personality to name a few (Moghaddam, 1998; Nasser, 2007). Furthermore, these attributions are often biased in nature and can manifest as fundamental attribution error, ultimate attribution error, actor-observer effects and self-serving bias (Moghaddam, 1998). This essay aims to explore how individuals and groups attribute causes to other individual’s and other group’s actions and behaviours by using attribution theory, how these attributions are motivated through political affiliation, dominant ideology, culture and personality, and the biases that can occur within these causal inferences, focusing on ultimate attribution bias.