Cognitive Theory Of Lifespan Development

10004 Words41 Pages
CHAPTER 1 Introduction West Kingston is recognized by many as an inner-city or garrison community plagued with crime and violence derived from youth forming various gangs and indulging in deviant activities. There is consensus in several arenas that these practices and activities are as a result of the high level of poverty that the youth in the community endure. Researchers regard this type of abject circumstances as ‘absolute poverty’ (Haralambos and Holborn, 2013). They see this type of poverty as a social problem which is undesirable and the United Nations Charter of Human Rights regard these vulnerabilities as injustices since it is perceived that every human being has the right to a dignified existence. This is so as these situations…show more content…
Cultural psychologists like Lev Vygotsky believe that culture is the most important factor of development. They indicated that if a child grows up in an individualistic or independent culture, then the child will be competitive and question authority as an adult. They outlined that each culture’s belief system are important determinants of behavior. Tucker et al (2007) indicated that within every culture, people have a prevailing set of ideas and beliefs that attempt to explain the world around them. Jean Piaget’s cognitive theory to development outlines that, similarly to that of physical development and the abilities of the child, their way of knowing and perceiving the world also grows and changes. Researchers outlined that a child’s temperament and reactions reflect the efforts that parents show towards their development rather than their parenting style. They indicated that the most important ingredient in a child’s development and parenting is the degree of warmth shown by parents versus rejection. It was analyzed that parental rejection has a negative effect on children from all walks of life. It is said that when the child encounters rejection (little or no attention) from parents they express or become ‘hostile, aggressive children’ and have it difficult to find or keep a meaningful relationship (Khalegue et al 2007). And as such they develop psychological problems that require professional intervention. Ill-treatment and abuse are now widely recognized than in the past. Violence in families is more prevalent due to economic stress and is common at all socioeconomic levels. However, abuse and violence do occur more frequently in families disrupted by unemployment or other financial distress. In addition to having financial problems, many abusive parents are also socially isolated
Open Document