Autism Spectrum Disorder Theory

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2. Theoretical formulations 2.1. Operational definitions of terms Autism Spectrum Disorder - any of a group of developmental disorders marked by impairments in the ability to communicate and interact socially and by the presence of repetitive behaviors or restricted interests. Awareness - The state or quality of being conscious of something. Knowledge - Facts, information, and skills acquired through experience or education. Student - A learner or someone who attends an educational institution. 2.2. Theories 2.2.1. Cognitive theories. 2.2.1.1. Theory of Mind Deficits (Baron-Cohen, 1995) According to Baron-Cohen (1995) children with Autism experience mind blindness, which implies that they cannot accomplish joint attention with others, they…show more content…
Central Coherence Theory (Frith, 1980) According to (Frith, 1980, as cited in Happe & Frith, 2006), weak central coherence theory defines the inability to comprehend the context or see the bigger picture. This can be ascribed to one of the symptoms of ASD whereby an autistic individual shows behaviors of preferring repetitiveness. 2.2.2. Psychoanalytic Theories. 2.2.2.1. Attachment Deficit Theory. ASD is said to be the result of social isolation from caregivers, therefore the attachment deficit theory arises. Rutgers, Bakermans-Kranenburg, van IJzendoorn and Berckelaer-Onnes (2004) relates social isolation existing in individuals suffering from ASD to the lack of early and secure attachment. 2.2.2.2. Freud’s Theory. The approaches of social engagement which proceeds to identification as defined by Freud are crucial in ASD development. Freud’s ideas of drives have influenced the psychodynamics explanations of the causes of ASD (Richardson, 2014). 2.2.3. Ecological Theories 2.2.3.1. Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological…show more content…
This study also indicated that most public attitudes and behaviours towards different disorders appear to be based on assumptions rather than knowledge or evidence. The study highlighted that the stigmatization of individuals with mental disorders can be changed with certain alterations in mental health literacy (Durand-Zaleski, Scott, Rouillon, & Leboyer, 2012). There are several factors that affect the attitudes of people towards individuals with psychiatric disorders. Among the factors highlighted by Ryan (2013), is the perceived causality of the disorder, gender, age, education and social desirability. Source of information is also important to offer more accurate information about Autism. 2.3.4. The prevalence rate of ASD. The rates of prevalence of ASD in many sub-Saharan African countries were unclear because of the absence of reliable data and late detection of the disorder. Bakare & Miner, (2011) state that ASD cases in African countries have shown that children with ASD were usually reported late in their childhood. This late report of ASD cases has been attributed to factors including insufficient knowledge of ASD, lack of appropriate health care facilities, and improperly trained healthcare professionals (Bakare & Munir,

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