To be precise, biological maturation, activity, social experience, and equilibration impinge on the development of thinking (Piaget,1970). In this regard, he came up with the view that people inherit two basic tendencies in thinking, namely organization and adaptation. Organization refers to constant arranging experience and information into psychosocial structure. Concerning adaptation, people are born to adjust the environment. One of Piaget’s key views was stages of cognitive development, he divided cognitive development into separate stages as follows: sensorimotor stage, preoperational stage, concrete operational stage, and formal operational stage.
All individuals learn, understand and think on different levels based on factors such as experience and genetic attributes (Olson, 2013). Piaget did not take samples of adults from cultures significantly different from his. If he did he would han experience difficulty processing their cognitive development based on concepts and
He disagreed with the idea that intelligence was a fixed trait and regarded cognitive development as a process which occurs due to biological maturation and interaction with the environment. He has discovered essential components and they are equilibration, assimilation and accommodation to give a breakdown of knowledge. Equilibration was the main learning source and the reason why this cognitive theory is developed. During this theory students will use previously retained information or skills to solve a problem and what they are learning in the present will help them get a deeper understanding to the solution. According to Patterson in her article, “Constructivists believe that prior knowledge impacts the learning process.
He believed in "the development of introspection as a means for studying the mind." (Cognitivism) Though he was not specifically involved in the field of Educational Psychology, he began the study of the mind. Therefore, he is an important name in the history of psychology, educational or otherwise. This study examines the impact of cognitive approach on development of social responsibility in pre-school children. Cognitive education is defined as the application of the findings of cognitive science, including cognitive psychology to education (Haywood, 2004).
In learning theories, one was not concerned with the unconscious processes, but more with the visible behaviour. It is easy then to feel in conflict with a central ethical principle in social work which is; “the clients’ right to self-determination, to decide for themselves”. Response thinking has been criticised for not seeing the human being as a unique individual, and that it can lead to a simplified and mechanical view of the human being. However, in social learning theory, where the cognitive processes and the “creative being” is also emphasized, the individuality of the human being is in the forefront. Social learning theory suggests that human behaviour is learned as individuals interact with their environment.
It is impressive that most of his research is based on observation and studying of his own children. Cognitive development stages are the central part of Piaget’s theory, which demonstrate the development stages of children’s ability to think from infancy to adolescence, how to gain knowledge, self-awareness, awareness of the others and the environment. These stages are respectively relative to 4 ranges of age. It consists of characteristics of each stage and phenomena of each. The first stage between birth to 2 years old, children learn the external through senses and action, instinctively.
At this stage, children are able to use abstract reasoning to use knowledge of a general topic and apply this to a specific circumstance (Cherry, 2017). Moreover, Piaget placed importance on the concepts of schema, assimilation, accommodation and equilibration in the cognitive development process. Schema are the past patterns or ‘index cards’ that advise the individual on how to react based on past experiences or innate knowledge (Wadsworth, 2004).
This assignment’s compilation serves the purpose of critically discussing the importance of primary school educators’ ability to understand theories of child development and their use within Intermediate phase education. Children perceive information in altered manners at particular stages of their development; this will be discussed further in this essay. Theories include Behaviourism, Constructivism and Cognitivism. It is imperative for educators to be aware of the theories that are applicable to the children they interact with, thus allowing them to provide information and activities for the learners in numerous manners to aid their development. The Behaviourists believed that our behaviour is shaped by the environment.
These fundamental and underlying properties are “found in the function rather than the structural aspects of intelligence” (Flavell, 1963, p.41). Piaget suggests that there are two invariants to his theory, which are organisation and adaptation. Furthermore adaption can be subdivided into two parallel factors, assimilation and accommodation. Cognition is an organized affair. Therefore a key component to Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development includes a schema which can be defined as an internal framework that organises incoming information, thoughts and actions.
The aim of the experiment is to prove Jean Piaget’s experiment and to investigate if the cognitive function is developing at normal rates in children as well as young people at different ages. According to Piaget’s experiment, there are 2 parts of the experiment involved: the object permanence experiment, principles of conversation (psychology) experiment. Lawrence Kohlberg agreed with Jean Piaget but wanted to design experiments of his own to further understand the development of morals (Mcleod, 2011). Kohlberg designed the Heinz dilemma experiment to test the development of a sense of right and wrong (morals), which will be discussed in this paper. The word cognitive, originally a derived Latin word cognoscere, which is to know can be used in psychological processes and activities that are involved in thinking and knowing- where information is acquired, processed and organized.