To search for the most relevant information there is a need to find the similarity between the text. But in NL, the text can be expressed in various ways without changing the meaning of a sentence. Therefore, finding the similarity between the text snippets became a research problem. The similarity can be measured among words, phrases, sentences, paragraphs, documents and word to phrase, word to sentence, sentence to paragraph etc. Techniques used for measuring the similarity between the long texts (documents) and short texts (sentences) are different.
Although the term is broad, I understand intertextuality in the sense that Genette articulates in Palimpsests: “a relationship of co-presence between two texts or among several texts.” Genette names three subcategories of intertextuality: flagged quotation, or the directed reference to another text; plagiarism, which is quotation without citation and involves both the author’s intention to obscure the presence of a co-text and the reader’s inability to detect it; and allusion, which presupposes recognition of another text in comprehending the alluding text’s full meaning. (Welch,
Emma associates Knightley with any thoughts of amiable, respectable, well-mannered gentlemen. In every recollection of hers of the past, he is the first one in her thoughts – what he was doing and saying, where he sat or stood, and how gentleman-like his behavior was. An example of a situation that demonstrates Emma's incessant preoccupation with Knightley is when her friend Harriet tries to remind her of the time when Mr. Elton left his pencil at Hartfield. Emma doesn’t manage to recall the day according to Harriet's description. Only when something reminds her that Knightley was present, is she able to remember the instance.
Both of these examples of Movement respond to the grammatical operation of question formation. Note that the second example, which illustrates Wh-Movement, also includes Auxiliary Inversion, since this is how questions are formed in English (exceptions are, of course, questions which do not make use of auxiliaries when the Wh-word is the subject of the sentence, as in “Who was happy about it?”). Parameters are dimensions of grammar which vary, in binary fashion, among languages. Examples are the Null Subject Parameter, according to which a language may o may not allow for elision of a subject pronoun, and the one which concerns us here, the Head Position Parameter (HPP), which determines whether a language allows for phrases to
According to Saussure, the symbols give us the definition of reality. The customary meaning of words representing to the truth are not adequate to Saussure. He contends that words give meaning with reference to different words and never the truth. It is the means by which the linguistics structuralism started. Before Saussure, Linguistics had been concerned about how a language develops after some time.
This is a research about Pragmatic Equivalence in the English Translation. Three theories will be applied in this paper; they are very connected with the title to show some of the steps and ways that must be taken in consideration when a translator begins to translate. Pragmatic equivalence: “Pragmatics refers to the meaning of words in context, to the appropriate use of language according to tongue, culture and situation. It refers to the intended meaning behind the surface, semantic meaning.” (Hale, 2004, P.5). Translators should not only translate the semantic meaning, but they should also interpret the pragmatic meaning of utterances.
Nida. The concept of functional adequacy in translating has been described in a number of books and articles as “dynamic equivalence”. In Toward a Science of Translating (Nida, 1964) dynamic equivalence has been treated in terms of the “closest natural equivalent”, but the term “dynamic ” has been misunderstood by some persons as referring only to something which has impact. Accordingly, many individuals have been led to think that if a translation has considerable impact then it must be a correct example of dynamic equivalence. Because of this misunderstanding and in order to emphasize the concept of function, it has seemed much more satisfactory to use the expression “functional equivalence” in describing the degrees of adequacy of a translation.
Hence, the translator will try to achieve the same function in the TT even though, it may appear unfaithful to the ST. The idea of a good translation relates to an idea of fluency in the TT or a way to make the target text acceptable. In line with this, Hatim and Mason explain translating as "an act of communication which attempts to relay, across cultural and linguistic boundaries, another act of communication (which may have been intended for different purposes and different readers/hearers)"(2005:1). That so, the translator needs to study all the linguistic and cultural parts involved in translating in order to achieve a new text from the source language, that the TT readers can understand and relate to in their own cultural context. This agrees with the concept of "dynamic" and "equivalent effect” developed by Eugene Nida.
What is the need to transpose the real voice? Is it the only means to articulate the ambivalence of a multicultural existence? These are the obvious questions that the research paper attempts to help respond to. Indian English Literature rebounds within numerous voices trying to articulate the spirit of “Indianness”. In the beginning, even- though inside an experimental phase, the writers tended in order to always be realistic in tinges associated with pessimism surfacing in between.
It is mandated for the language users to identify the barriers first, in fact to knowwhat is exactly preventing them in attaining proficiency in a language. There are some common languages barriers are identified universally; they are as follows in separate for the skills of speaking, listening, and reading and writing (LSRW) this fundamentally emulates the language