Although Truman’s actions and the new ‘policies’ that he introduced were a major factor to the deterioration of America-Soviet relations, it is important to understand the pre-1945 factors that affected these relations. After World War I, European countries adopted an appeasement ideology: The world was horrified by what the war had done to Europe, and a war like that must never happen again, so peace must be protected at all costs. This led to many attempts to preserve peace in Europe, which ultimately failed as Germany invaded Poland and the world realized that another war was about to begin. However, one of the last agreements that the western countries signed with the Nazis might have been the start of the bad Soviet relations with these countries: the Munich agreement. This agreement said that Hitler was free to invade a portion of Czechoslovakia, as long as he went no further.
For many years, The Cold War was the issue of a fierce debate regarding who or what exactly was the reason that caused it. On this subject, there are three schools of thought: the traditionalists, the revisionists and the post-revisionists. The traditionalists blame Joseph Stalin and the Soviet Union’s expansionist and violent diplomacy for being the starters of the war. “Besides violating the agreements made at the Yalta Conference in February 1945, Stalin completely disregarded the United Nations because he intended to expand and dominate his sphere of influence in Eastern Europe.” (Nye 118). The revisionists kept insisting on blaming the American expansionism rather than the Soviet Union’s wish to spread communism into Eastern Europe.
They also suffered massive losses. The land was destroyed, partly due to Stalin 's 'scorched-earth ' policy. It was impossible to calculate the number of dead, but it is estimated at several million. However, Churchill was very suspicious of Stalin, and believed a powerful Russia could be just as big a threat as a powerful Germany. Churchill wanted to 'shake hands with the Russians as far to the east as possible, ' to stop them gaining more land.
The Germans lost territory and other countries tried to weaken Germany’s military potential and strengthen their own to compensate for the destruction of their lands caused by the Germans. The Germans were unanimously against the Treaty of Versailles. They viewed the terms of the treaty as humiliating and merciless, designed to keep Germany militarily and economically weak. To the Germans, the Treaty of Versailles was not the beginning of the New World that Wilson had promised, but a horrible
America and Russia had different Aims for Germany. Stalin wanted to destroy Germany, and was stripping East Germany of its wealth. Britain and America wanted to rebuild Germany’s industry in January 1947, they joined their two zones together into Bizonia. This had a big impact on both Sides sphere of influence because the USSR’s way of protecting their sphere of influence is to make Russia more powerful, by stripping Germany from their industrial resources, they are leaving Germany helpless while Russia can expand its industrial dominance. But when America interfered with the USSR’s plans they tried to help Germany by occupying Western Germany, this helped America’s sphere of influence because not only did they have control over germany, but they were able to convert West Germany to become a democratic country.
The American people were willing to use arm forces if that meant stopping the spread of communism. Other than arm forces, the American people were willing to give economic and military aid to those countries who faced threats of communism (76). About 80 percent of American people favored the aid to stop communist aggression (76). The Cold War consensus had influenced foreign policy during that time. Foreign Policy would be focused on the Soviet Union and the containment of communism.
These new policies led to even further weakening of the Soviet Union, economically and politically and as a result there were revolutions against the communist governments of many of the Warsaw Pact alliance member (Doyle, 1996). By viewing NATO as an institution, it is clear that NATO was able to win the Cold War because it’s member states believed in achieving a common goal even if it meant giving up on their individual state needs or goals. While the member states of NATO
Pearl Harbor and the nukes dropped. War is not something you should take lightly. World War two was particularly difficult for the united states of America because they wanted to remain out of the war. Neutral was no longer an option after what japan did. Before that America was on the sidelines just observing and aiding the ally forces.
The Treaty of Versailles had a huge effect on Germany. To start off with, Germany was hurt politically. When the Treaty of Versailles was first proposed, the government did not agree with the Treaty of Versailles and not only resigned, but also refused to sign the Treaty of Versailles. The new incoming government had no choice but to just sign the Treaty of Versailles. This hurt the government and their connection that they could have possibly had with the Germans because the government was accused of stabbing the people of Germany in the back because of the fact that they signed the Treaty of Versailles.
The Cold war can be seen as a framework, which shaped every aspect of the world politics and entangled every individual state into the struggle for power and competition between the two great authorities, the United States and the Soviet Union. At the peak of an ongoing struggle over the influence and power, the termination of British Raj in South Asia, led to emergence of two new independent states, India and Pakistan. After years of British governance and influence, two states were in rather weak position, which made them prone to Soviet penetration. This led, the Truman administration to make efforts in order to construct good bilateral relations with both India and Pakistan and to keep them by its side in the global struggle. In order