Collective Action Literature Review

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CHAPTER TWO-LITERATURE REVIEW 2.0 INTRODUCTION The purpose of this study is to explore whether incentive structures influence stakeholder participation in collective action and the extent to which incentives explain success or failure of collective action. This chapter will highlight and discuss literature from various resources including peer-reviewed articles, books, journals and other publications around the issues that are the focus of this study. The chapter starts with a brief discussion on how the concept of collective action is defined and proceeds to discuss some of the key theories that explain this concept. It then reviews some of the key propositions made by various scholars and authors on, factors that influence participation in collective action including the role that incentives play, classification of collective action organizations and incentives. It concludes by looking at some of the arguments advanced relating to how success or failure of collective action organizations can be determined. 2.1 What Is Collective Action? Wheatland and Chêne (2015) defines collective action as referring to a variety of actions that are undertaken by individuals or groups or an organization that is acting on their behalf to achieve a collective purpose or shared interest of the group or individuals. As an analytical concern, Collective action cuts across myriad disciplines and contexts which include economic, political, labor, development, agriculture, environment,

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