BACKGROUND OF SUSPENSION Suspension are probably the most challenging and difficult pharmaceutical formulation that need to be handle by the students and formulators. Pharmaceutical suspension is a liquid system that consist of solid material such as drug that do no dissolve in the vehicle, but just remain distributed throughout the vehicle. Pharmaceutical suspension fall across between colloidal and course dispersion with solid particle generally in the range 0.1 to 10um. Colloidal is a substance consisting of particles that are dispersed throughout another substance and are too small for resolution with an ordinary light microscope but are incapable of passing through a semipermeable membrane. Course dispersion Mostly drug are design in
This parameter is used as an indicator of water quality . Suspended solids are considered important as a carrier of contaminants and pathogens on the surface of the particles .The smaller the particle size , the greater the amount of surface area per unit weight of each particle , the greater the burden of material to be taken . Removal of suspended solids can usually use the method of deposition and water filters . In this study, suspended solids was determined using the DR / 2010 uses two samples cell, each sample consider testing sample and control sample. 3.6.5 Nitrogen Ammonia (a) Select the test (b) Insert the multi-cell adapter with the 1-inch square cell holder facing the user.
These micelles are imperative for their polar negativity, which causes a pull towards the positive pole. The molecules that are hydrophobic (water hating) will tend to aggregate with the micelle, while those that are hydrophilic (water loving) will move fairly quickly through the solution. The key parameters for this technique are pH, surfactant concentration, any additives and the polymer coatings that are used on the capillary wall. Capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) This is the most commonly used capillary electrophoresis method of the six being discussed. CZE, also known as free solution capillary electrophoresis, is a separation technique that predominantly takes into account the ratio of the particle’s charge to mass, where those with large charge to mass ratio separate from the rest first; therefore, the larger the ratio, the quicker the separation.
The combination of hydrophobic and hydrophilic properties in the same molecule gives these species unique solubility properties in water or aqueous media. In dilute aqueous media, surfactants molecules usually exist as monomers. Aggregation of these monomers in different forms called micelles and changes of physical properties of the solution occur at a surfactant concentration known as the critical micelle concentration. These media which contain micelles have been shown to exhibit some interesting features. They are capable of solubilizing many water-insoluble substances within and on the surface of the micelles (Ahn et al., 2008; Mulligan et al., 2001, 1999).
The compound forms colloids when dissolved in water. Although non-toxic, it is combustible and can react vigorously with oxidising agents.  Hypromellose in an aqueous solution, unlike methylcellulose, it does not exhibit thermal gelation property. That is, when the solution heats up to a critical temperature, the solution congeals into a non-flowable but semi-flexible mass. Typically, this critical (congealing) temperature is inversely related to both the solution concentration of HPMC and the concentration of the methoxy group within the HPMC molecule (which in turn depends on both the degree of substitution of the methoxy group and the molar substitution.
non-polar), highly viscous and frequently exhibit low vapor pressure. Their other properties are diverse: many have low combustibility, excellent thermal stability, wide liquid regions, and favorable solvating properties for a range of polar and non-polar compounds. Many classes of chemical reactions, such as Diels-Alder reactions and Friedel-Crafts reactions, can be performed using ionic liquids as solvents. Recent work has shown that ionic liquids can serve as solvents for bio catalysis. The miscibility of ionic liquids with water or organic solvents varies with side chain lengths on the cation and with choice of anion.
This process involves removing of suspended solids such as chemical flocs and precipitates in suspension that is heavier than the water. According to Ersoz and Barott (2012), the sedimentation process occurs when the gravitational force causes the settlement of the suspended solids and consequently they are removed from water by precipitating at the bottom of a circular or rectangular tank. An effective sedimentation process removes as much of the suspended materials as possible prior to filtration. The process of sedimentation takes place in a sedimentation tank and is separated into four zones which is the inlet zone, settling zone, sludge zone, and outlet
These reactions occur at varies rate and varies time. Altogether, these chemical reactions determine how cement harden and gain strength. The main product of hydration of silicate mineral is a calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) of colloidal dimension that, at early ages, under 11 | Page scanning electron microscope, usually shows up like an aggregation of very fine grains partly inter-grown together ( Reinhardt, 1995). Beside calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H), other product of hydration are such as calcium hydroxide, ettringite and monosulfate. Calcium hydroxide is also more soluble and alkaline than the other hydration products.
SUSPENSION: In general suspension refers to suspending something in air i.e., acting as medium for two objects. In vehicle, sprung mass and unsprung mass are connected by shock absorbers and linkages, which are also part of suspension. Shock absorber is nothing but combination of damper and the spring. It also includes 1. Camber angle 2.
(a)miscelles , (b)liposomes , (c) lipid bilayer Due to their amphiphilic structure, biosurfactants increase the surface area of hydrophobic water-insoluble substances, increase the water bioavailability of such substances and change the properties of the bacterial cell surface. Surface activity makes surfactants excellent emulsifiers, better foaming property, higher selectivity and dispersing agents. They are active at extreme temperatures, pH and salinity as well, and can be produced from industrial wastes and from by-products. 1.3 Classification and Properties of Biosurfactants Biosurfactants are categorized by their chemical composition, molecular weight, physico- chemical properties and mode of action and microbial origin. Most commonly, surfactants are classified according to polar head group.