The beginning of the human life on earth can be traced back to the time three million years ago in Eastern Africa from where they spread in Europe, Asia, Australia and North America (Chamley 1). Man started to occupy and exploit the earth’s environment since their early appearance on earth. The environmental degradation is rapidly intensifying in the successive phases of human civilization. When industrial revolution in the 19th century brought urbanization with it, the encroachment of earth and nature increased in a massive scale. Most dangerously a hierarchy has been established between human and none-human. The anthropocentric view of the world puts humanity at the centre and the none-human, including nature, is merely to be consumed by men. “ Marxism” for example, as Richard Kerrige writes "is often regarded as a set of anti-environmentalist philosophy, because of its confident emphasis on nature as a set of restraining conditions to be overcome by technological progress…" (531). Marxism in this sense emphasizes on anthropocentric attitude to the world which actually got its hold from the fifteenth century when, as Stephen Mosley states:
Economic expansion, technological innovation, population growth and increasing urbanization have seen humans transform the earth to an unprecedented degree. Overseas colonialism, especially the advance of European empires after 1492, reordered the world’s ecology (113).
Anthropocentric thought is countered by what is called