Consumers’ self-image can be inferred from the brands they use, their attitudes toward different brands and the meanings brands have for them. The perceptions consumers have of themselves influences their brand decisions. Consumers form favourable attitudes toward those products which possess images most similar to the images they either prefer or wish of themselves. Accordingly, they buy those products which match their desired self-image because those products help consumers express themselves (Zinkham& Hong,
Keller (2009) points that brand awareness are related to the strength of the brand node or trace in memory as reflected by consumers’ ability to recall or recognize the brand under different conditions. Brand image is defined as consumer perceptions of and preferences for a brand, as reflected by the various types of brand associations held in consumers’ memory. Reinforcing these two components serve as sources of brand equity that can affect positively loyalty; price premiums and more favorable price elasticity responses; greater communication and channel effectiveness; and growth opportunities via extensions or licensing (Keller
Different Models of Brand Equity In modern marketing, brand equity is considered one of the key principles that brings the added value to products and services. Brand equity can be defined as a marketing process helping indicate the relationship between the overall customer’s satisfaction and loyalty to the brand. David Aaker, a branding expert, defined brand equity as a set of factors and features related to a brand name and symbol that increases the value provided by a product or service (Aaker, 1991). Basically, if a product is not associated with a brand, it relates to a commodity. At this point, brand equity starts demonstrating its value by bringing the benefits to the revenues by means of increased sales and customer’s willingness to
As proposed in the previous sections, brand credibility has three components, trustworthiness, expertise and attractiveness. Relationship marketing theory suggests that trust leads to affective commitment (Morgan and Hunt, 1994). If consumers believe that the company can deliver on its promise of service or product quality (i.e., high trustworthiness), they tend to have higher affective commitment, since trust in a company justiﬁes consumers ' positive feelings towards and reliance on the company (Erkmen and Hancer, 2015; Hunt et al., 2006). H3. Brand credibility positively affects consumers ' affective commitment.
Moore et al (2003) also described that positive perception of consumers about a particular brand is an indicator of status, quality and prestige; i.e. factors other than price. Brand Loyalty Schiffman and Kanuk (2004) have stated brand loyalty as one of the desired outputs of learning of the consumers. It is the probability of positive behaviours and attitude towards a brand, thus it could result in positive word of mouth and repeat purchase (Rawly and Dawes, 1999). Quester and Lim (2003) also explained the two major types of brand loyalty.
Brand image is developed over time through various means such as advertising campaigns with a consistent theme. It is authenticated through the consumers' direct experience and satisfaction level. According to Hsieh, Pan and Section (2004), “a successful brand image enables consumers to identify the needs that the brand satisfies and to differentiate the brand from its competitors and consequently increases the likelihood that consumers will purchase the brand”. Keller (1993) considered brand image as “a set of perceptions about a brand as reflected by brand associations in consumer’s
Keller describes brand equity as the value adding element to the product. Brand equity is an extremely important concept for both practical and theory related reasons in brand building and its management. Brand equity has many dimensions and definitions for example favorable impressions, attitudinal dispositions, and behavioral predilections. Whereas the major dimensions of brand equity are brand loyalty, brand awareness, perceived quality of brand, and brand associations as told by Keller and Aaker in 1993 and 1996 respectively. One important agreement about the definitions is that brand equity is the actual incremental value of a product due to the brand name (Srivastava and Shocker, 1991).
The way information is provided effects the way consumer interprets that information. The goal of advertisings is to increase the quality, trust, participation and efficiency of consumer decision making process. Interactive advertising depends on the selection of medium, way information is interpreted, how consumer perceives information, way message delivered and advert
Example for the product features is the colour, shape, design and the style of the packaging. Product features is important to make the customer persuade to buy the product. The company that want to produce their product and want to market the product, the product features is very important for the new item in the market. The choice of the color should be attractive and bright, it is make the customer want to look on the product. Besides that, the shape