We can see that the rays travel in a straight line inside of the two media, and bends at the boundary. To find out change of speed of light as it travels from the air into glass, we can use the Refractive Index formulae; which is a measure of how much the light slows down as it enters the dense medium (glass). The formulae is written as: Refractive Index: Speed in Air / Speed in a material Light travels at 3 x 10^8 ms^-1 in air while light travels 2 x 10^8
Ionization refers to the production of gas phase ions suitable for resolution in the mass analyser or mass filter. There are a many on sources available, each has advantages and disadvantages for particular applications. For example, Electron Ionization (EI) gives a high degree of fragmentation, yielding highly detailed mass spectra which when skilfully analyzed can provide important information about structural elucidation/characterization and facilitate identification of unknown compounds by comparison to mass spectral libraries. However, EI is not suitable for coupling to High-performance liquid chromatography, since at atmospheric pressure, the filaments used to generate electrons burn out rapidly. Thus EI is coupled predominantly with Gas Chromatography, where the entire system is under high
Refraction: Refraction occurs when light enters a more or less optically dense medium, which therefore has a different refractive index (measure of the velocity light can travel at in the medium compared to in a vacuum in which it can travel at 2.9 x 108ms-1). This causes the light’s speed to increase or decrease, which results in the rays bending towards or away from the normal, so the position of the image formed is dependent on the refractive indices of the two media. For refraction to occur, the light rays have to hit the boundary between media at an angle to the normal (which is 90 degrees to the boundary), otherwise no change in direction will occur, only a change in velocity. Therefore, if the light rays hit the boundary between the different media at a perpendicular (90 degree) angle, they will continue to go straight. This occurs because the angle at which the rays hit the boundary (called the angle of incidence) determines the angle at which the rays will refract (called the angle of refraction).
Typically, modern chemists make use of Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy to determine, quantitatively, the concentration of small and often trace elements found within certain substances and/or the environment. such measurements can be made due to the sensitive nature of AAS, as measurements that are taken can be into the parts per million (ppm). In principle, AAS works, by using ground state atoms. (which are atoms that have the lowest possible shell orbit to the nucleus due to containing very little energy). (see bibliography: Smith, R. (2010).
In the other hand my prediction is that every element has a different half-life, because every real and existing element has a different rate of decay due to their different instabilities. I guess the gap between the different elements half-life, will either be large or small. Variables (Independent: what you change, Dependent: what you measure, Control) The independent variables are the things we change. I that experiment the independent variables are the elements such as A, B, C and D. The dependent variable is the half-life of each element. To measure the half-life of each element we need to measure the number of remaining radioactive atoms.
The different components of the ink mixtures travel accordingly to different rates. The mixtures are then separated into different coloured spots depending on the compound's preference. The mobile phase is solvent in thin and paper chromatography.. Acetone is generally used as dipping reagent in chromatographic process because it shows the characteristics of a good solvent since it is important to choose a solvent for the color reagent in which the substances to be detected are insoluble (Joseph Sherma, 2013). Capillary action causes the solvent to flow up the paper at a uniform rate. A line called as solvent front is created across the paper .As the solvent level increased; the solvent dissolved the ink into its components.
A racemic mixture is a mix of equal numbers of enantiomeric molecules. Each enantiomer rotates plane-polarized light in an equal but opposite direction and is optically inactive because they are mirror images. when an optically active compound is synthesized, the product formed is found to be an optically inactive racemic mixture containing equal amounts of both l and d forms. The process where enantiomers are separated into l and d forms is referred to as “resolution”. the mixture is then said to have been resolved.
The appropriate combination of dissociation of the components due to the addition of the second component, the existence of weak forces between unlike molecules and differences in sizes and shapes of the components affects the sign and magnitude of the excess isentropic compressibilities . The values in liquid mixtures depends on the molecular structure of component liquids, and influenced by other factors like dipole-dipole interactions, hydrogen bonding, and charge transfer interactions and or complex formation. An examination of data in Table 4 cause that the factors causes for negative excess isentropic compressibilities were dominant in the binary mixtures of N-methylformamide with ketones at (303.15 to 318.15) K. The observed negative values indicate that dipole-dipole interaction between unlike molecules is stronger than N-methylformamide- N-methylformamide or ketone-ketone interactions in all the systems under study . The algebraic values fall in the order cyclopentanone > cyclohexanone >
GC-MS (Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry): GC (Gas Chromatography): Gas chromatography is a method which is used for the separation and analysis of organic compounds (i.e. volatile compounds). For separation prime factor is volatility i.e. more volatile compounds elute first from the column and then detected by detector. It is used for testing the purity and isolating of compounds.
• Higher turbulence levels are required. • Erosion of spark plug electrodes. Laser: A laser is a device that emits light through a process of optical amplification based on the stimulated emission of electromagnetic radiation. The term "laser" originated as an acronym for "light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation". Laser provide intense and unidirectional ray of light.