One of the largest forced movements of humans was via the Trans-Atlantic slave trade route between the mid-fifteenth century and nineteenth centuries, which transported about 10-12 million African slaves into the Americas. The Trans-Atlantic slave trade formed a devastating relationship between the Europeans and Africans through slavery, an inhumane act of forcing drudgery among other humans. At first Africans themselves were enslaving each other through the freehold system. The freehold system was a way for African slave owners to employ slaves by giving them land in exchange for their labor. By 1441, Portuguese began to abduct Africans and forced them to work in Portugal as slaves with the help of African slave traders.
The trans-Atlantic slave trade had caused long-lasting devastations in Africa from the 16 through to the 19 centuries. During these centuries, large majority of slaves were transported to the Americas (new world) from Africa. The Atlantic slave trade originated from the expansion of European Empires that lacked one major resource; a workforce. Europeans were unsuited to the climate and suffered from diseases. However, the African labourers were used to the tropical climate and resistant to tropical diseases.
The slave trade started the triangle trade between Europe, Africa, and the new world. Where slaves were transported from Africa to the Americas. Raw materials were transported from the Americas to Europe, and finished goods were transported from Europe to Africa to buy slaves. The slave trade had many negative effects, such as the death of over 15% of all slaves captured in the transporting them to the
It started as a result of the exploration of the Portuguese in the 15th century and its effects is monumental. History has it that this singular activities affected the African countries and the countries that came to ravage the African countries: Americas and Britain. Scholars have established the fact that slave trade brought about many devastating effects on Africa ranging from death of millions of people to economical and social breakdown. On the contrary, this same slave trade led to the economic development of America and Britain. Transatlantic slave trade was in operation from 14th century though 19th centuries.
Various types of slavery included debt bondage, sexual slavery, forced labour and chattel slavery (The Mercury News). Needless to say the three most overruling and important subjects of the slave trade consist of the identities of the enslaved and their lives after being captured. The economic benefits of the slave trade, and the struggle to end slavery and its lasting effects. Neglecting the effect of slavery on Africa black slaves undoubtedly played a crucial role in the economic development of the New World, above all by making up for shortages in labour. The arrival of Europeans in the Americas had brought diseases that devastated and caused havoc on local populations.
It was the direct destruction of Africans. Enslavement in Africa became part of an international trade system called the ‘triangular trade’. As part of this trade, African captives were taken thousands of miles across the Atlantic and forced to work in plantations and mines. African people trafficking to America were part of triangle trade between Africa Europe and New World. There was created a circle Europe provided Africa by manufactured goods; from Africa to America were trafficking slaves; and Europe gave raw materials from America.
Approximately 12 million Africans were traded across the Atlantic, however, the number of slaves originally bought was much higher. The passage from Africa to North America had a very high mortality rate. () If Africans reached their destinations alive, they were used to fulfil a labor shortage in the new American colonies. Because many crops could not be grown in Europe, agriculture was a necessary industry in the colonies, and this required more labor than the colonists could supply. Unsurprisingly, forcibly removing someone from their homes and enslaving them to work on another continent, if they did not die on the dangerous trip there, does not foster peaceful relationships.
In 1619 the Dutch were first to bring African Americans slaves to our country. Which evolved into a nightmare for our country and would later divide us. Slavery continued through the 17th and 18th centuries, which made America very wealthy from selling tobacco and cotton. Slavery continued all the way up to 1863 when U.S president Abraham Lincoln signed the emancipation proclamation that freed all slaves and gave them the right to be Americans. But slaves did not officially become free until 1865 after the civil war.
Europe had forced Africans into working for free, slavery, and had made them work in harsh conditions. The Europeans beat the slaves if they stopped working, and sold them for money. Europe had political means for Imperialism, enslaving the Africans, making an army, and making an Empire.
In retrospect, while the African was busy chasing after ‘scarlet handkerchiefs’, little did s/he know that s/he was actually being systematically adapted towards raising cotton, sugar and other crops in the New World (Abodunrin, 2008:4). Furthermore, Abodunrin (2008:5), informs that prior to this time, to meet the need for a constant supply of cheap labour, the Europeans first turned to the aborigines and then to Africa. The reason for this U-turn in European thought could be found in the various mythical conceptions of the “African personality”. Some myths claimed that Blacks have been ordained by God to be perpetual slaves of the Whites, while another credited to Batholome de Las Casas, Bishop of Chiapa, Mexico, claimed that the work done by four American Indians could be done by one African. These myths, explains Abodunrin (2008:4), even though given the powerful support of religion which reified them to the level of divine essence, does not contradict the analysis of the historic contact of Europe and Africa as being primarily economic.