Cause Of Stress In Aquaculture

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According to Foster and Smith (2007) stress is any condition that causes physical or mental discomfort that result in the release of stress-related hormones or results in specific physiological responses. Stress is present in the lives of all living things and is the force that brings about physical change and adjustment. Small amounts of stress can be harmless or even beneficial, but high levels of stress or prolonged periods of stress can create severe health problems. According to Tullock (2001), stress can either be physical, psychological, or environmental. It can also be short and sudden, or long and chronic.
In cultured fish, mild or short-term stress has few serious health effects. Long-term stress or severe, short-term stress on the other hand contributes to many of the illnesses and deaths of the fish. Fish, cultured or otherwise, are no exception to stress. Just like all living things, they are prone to stress and more often than not, stress has detrimental effects on cultured fish. Reducing stress in aquaculture therefore is especially valuable because the recognition of stressed states as well as the management of fish health is critical to an aquaculture venture as the smallest amount of stress can have long lasting negative effects on the fish (Iwama,
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Daily fluctuations in temperature are as harmful as too high or low temperatures. The Atlantic salmon just like most tropical freshwater and marine fish do not tolerate temperature changes very well. Many tanks that are not set up properly will have over the recommended maximum of one degree of temperature fluctuation in a 24-hour period due to room temperature, lights, and equipment. The daily fluctuations will create chronic stress as will having too low or too high of a temperature in the tank for the species of fish present (Hach Company,

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