Intellectual Disability Research Paper

973 Words4 Pages
Keywords: ‘Intellectual disability*’ OR ‘learning disability*’ OR ‘mental retardation’, ‘communication’, ‘pain’.
Chapter One:
1.0: Introduction:
1.1: Background:
People who have an intellectual disability often experience difficulty in relation to communication. According to the World Health Organisation (, 2016),

‘Intellectual disability means a significantly reduced ability to understand new or complex information and to learn and apply new skills (impaired intelligence). This results in a reduced ability to cope independently (impaired social functioning), and begins before adulthood, with a lasting effect on development.’

Consequently, communication is the core value in terms of inclusion, person-centred care and independence
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However, this may be difficult for an individual with an intellectual disability who experiences communication difficulties. It is an "subjective experience" and no "objective tests" can measure it. (American Pain Society, 2009) In the case of pain recognition in a person who is non-verbal, a huge role of the RNID is to observe the signs of the individual that they are conveying their pain through their body language, behaviour (challenging etc.) or through physical changes. A Hierarchy of Pain Assessment Techniques (Pasero & McCaffery, 2011) is a framework that is used to guide assessment approaches of pain. This assessment tool consists…show more content…
(Hagan and Thompson 2014) Augmentative and alternative communication is an “intervention approach” which uses communication boards with symbols such as PECS, manual signs for instance LAMH, and the use of computer devices that “speak and incorporate the child 's full communication abilities.” (Romski and Sevcik, 2005) It is important when using manual signs that the RNID understands the meaning of the signs that the service user is portraying. This can help the person with an intellectual disability to self-report. The RNID should try to get extract as much information as possible from the individual with regard to their pain. This can be achieved by using visual aids or pointing to the pain source. It is extremely important and beneficial to develop a therapeutic relationship between the nurse and patient through alternative communication as mutual trust and respect is formed. It allows the RNID to have an understanding of the patient’s physical, social and emotional well-being (Pullen, 2010). However, there may be situations that are more complex where the individual is unable to

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