Communication Theory: Stella Ting-Toomey's Face Negotiation Theory

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In the world of communication, there are many theories that describe diverse ways people communicate with one another. According to S.F. Scudder, who proposed the Communication Theory, said “all living beings existing on the planet communicate although the way of communication is different”. This paper will focus on Stella Ting-Toomey 's, a professor of Human Communication Studies at California State University, Fullerton, communication theory on face negotiation. The Face-Negotiation Theory is used to understand how people from distinct cultures manage relationships and disagreements. The theory hypothesizes "face", or our self-image, as a universal phenomenon that spreads across cultures. In a situation where there is a conflict, one’s face will look vulnerable; so, the person tends to save his or her facial expression. This communication behavior, according to the Face-Negotiation Theory, is called facework. Subsequently, people have the tendency to frame the set definition of “face” and pass the word “facework” inversely from one culture to the next, the Face-Negotiation theory has a generalization of cultural frameworks to observe facework negotiation. Stella Tiny-Toomey expanded her thoughts on this theory and hypothesizes face as an individual 's claimed sense of favorable social self-image in a relational and network context. Facework is well-defined as groups of communicative behaviors that are used to uphold, challenge/threaten, or support the other person 's

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