In 1861, the Tsar of the period Alexander II freed peasants from serfdom allowing them to own their own plots of land. However, this had little effect and hostility had begun to rise as a ramification of the Tsar’s absolute power. Thus the intelligentsia during the 19th century was vigilant of the iniquities faced by millions of Russian’s and adopted belligerent ideologies that advocated toppling the Tsar perforce. Whilst Lenin was still in his youth, age 10, Tsar Alexander II was assassinated by a radical revolutionary. Subsequently, his son, Alexander III held the throne, however, constituted little improvements.
Marx thought that social stratification is created by the unequal access to the productive properties. The capitalist or also called the bourgeoisie, exploit their workers by only paying them as much as necessary to scratch a living. The workers are not aware of their invidious position as they take the ideologies, norms and values which the capitalists promotes, for granted. Marx predicted a revolution of the workers. He believed that the proletariat will become aware of its misery and will unite to overthrow the capitalists and capitalism.
Holland Arrowsmith explains Marxism as a term which refers to “a hugely diverse set of social, economic, philosophical, historical and cultural theories”. Several theories such as social, economical, political and critical theories have been derived from Marxism philosophy. Marxism advocates equality amongst the class structure of society. Marxism is divided into two fundamental classes. According to Marx there are only two classes which exist: Bourgeoisie, which means powerful or dominant class and Proletariat, which means the peasant or working classes.
One way he made sure of that was by using propaganda. Stalin ran a Totalitarian state, which deprived people of a free way of living. Under no circumstances did he allow people to critic the way he ran things because if they did they were to be executed or even arrested by his secret police. To control his people, Stalin used terror and violence. In severe circumstances, murder or brutal force was even used.
Stalin did not fulfil Marx’s envisionment. Stalin drove the citizens of the USSR into the ground and somewhat enslaved everyone. While both had a passion to make communism work, Stalin went down the wrong path in order to make it work. In the readings of Marx, Lenin, and Stalin, I was able to learn a great deal of knowledge about each of their
Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels express their major critiques and opinions on capitalism in their 1848 publication of The Communist Manifesto. Their critiques are based around the idea that capitalism is simply unfair, meaning that one class benefits significantly more than the rest. The class that benefits least from capitalism is the proletariats. This unintelligent labor class suffers from the capitalists dominance, and is unaware of the damage they are experiencing. George Orwell’s depiction of Boxer in his novel, Animal Farm, fits precisely into Marx and Engels’ negative critique of capitalism by representing a strong symbol for the proletariat class and succumbing to the powerful demands of the capitalists.
Simon did a social fund and he wanted the socialist govern the countries. Voltaire Saint Simon viewed humans as greedy and wanted to make a utopia society. He opposed the revolution because the previous revolution failed. Simon wanted the captains of the industry to control the nation 's capital. He also wanted the labor organizations to control the social club.
While the idea of Communism is to create a economic state where the bourgeoisie is dissolved, the proletarians are treated as equals, and there is no more government, in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and Cambodia Communism did not benefit the countries like the ideology behind Communism should have. In the USSR and Cambodia, the citizens were stripped of their human rights, forced to work on collective farms, and were killed for being “enemies” of the state. In the Soviet Union, Communism was favored by the proletarians because of the dentromental consequences of the Industrial Revolution. In the late 19th century, the ruler of Russia, Tsar Nicholas the second, believed that Russia was falling behind the other countries in terms for being a modern society and being able to usable materials that is not just producing farming goods. The Industrial
Marx and Engels wrote that capitalist globalization was completely eroding the foundations of the international system of states in the mid-1840s. Conflict and competition between nation-states had not yet over in their view but the main fault-lines in future looked certain to revolve around the two main social classes: the national bourgeoisie, which controlled different systems of government, and an increasingly cosmopolitan proletariat. Over revolutionary action, the international proletariat would insert the Enlightenment principles of liberty, equality and fraternity in an exclusively new world order which would free all human beings from exploitation and domination. Many traditional theorists of international relations have pointed to the failures of Marxism or historical materialism as an explanation of world history. Marxists had undervalued the vital importance of nationalism, the state and war, and the implication of the balance of power, international law and diplomacy for the structure of world politics.
Radical leaders such as Robespierre used the idea of nationalism to motivate people into joining revolution in order to create the French republic. However, the true leaders of the revolution were the people, as they were the ones who stole the gunpowder from the Bastille and stormed Versai, while the leaders were just the ‘head of the snake’ that told people what to do in order for them to get what they want. Furthermore, nationalism did not spark the revolution, but rather fuelled it as the true reason why the revolution began was because the bourgeoisie were not included in the Assemblée nationale, so they retaliated by motivating a mass of poorly fed people into following them. Even though nationalism played a key role in the french revolution, the main factors that led to the revolution was the nearly bankrupt french government, and the radical ideas of the bourgeoisie that were excluded from the Assemblée
Mao wanted to add his own twist to communism by introducing mass mobilization of the labor force with the goal of improving industrial and agricultural production (BBC). This had the exact opposite effect because it created a decline of output and, therefore, led to poor harvests and starvation (BBC). His careless dictatorship resulted from steering away from the true objective of communism. Marx’s idea of communism was meant to be positive by expressing concerns for the working classes, yet practice of it became oppressive under the leadership of early communist leaders such Stalin and Mao
Robber Barons were like robin hoods, but reversed. Instead of stealing from the rich to give to the poor, they would steal from the poor by giving the rich a discount on a product, then making that same product up for a poorer person (Whitehead, 2016). The Civil War has just ended. America is thrown into a time of industrialism that it wasn’t properly prepared for. Before all of the industrialism was put into the equation, we were a mess and with the industrialism, we were a disaster, just waiting to explode.
This would damage business which would therefore damage the economy. The government would have to step in, whether directly or indirectly to maintain the stability of the system. Many workers created unions to protect workers and bully companies. “With the miners resisting, refusing to give in, the mines not able to operate, the Colorado governor (referred to by a Rockefeller mine manager as 'our little cowboy governor ') called out the National Guard, with the Rockefellers supplying the Guard 's wages” (Zinn Online). The government was willing to defend the capitalist businesses from socialist workers demanding more rights.
(Orwell) However, throughout the entire book, the war against Eastasia or Eurasia raged. This shows that someone will always be against the Party, or the society based on complete power. In World War II, Germany was a country based on hatred towards others – Jews, homosexuals, the disabled, and gypsies. Just like in the book 1984, the people of the country were manipulated. All propaganda was for the totalitarianism of Hitler and kids were taught at a young age to only believe what the leader of the country believed in.
This was known as the “One Big Union.” (page 83) Mission and its sole purpose was to overthrow capitalist. They weren’t above settling for the small victories for it was only a stepping stone to achieving the big ones. As a means to achieve equity, it felt that workers