In 330 A.D. a Roman emperor named Constantinople founded a city named Constantinople on the old Greek city of Byzantium. This city expanded into the Byzantine Empire, a continuation of the Roman Empire in Eastern Europe even after the Western Roman Empire fell. During the entire span of the Byzantine Empire, there were several emperors that influenced the empire, but one emperor, Justinian I, is widely acknowledged as the greatest Byzantine emperor. Very little is known about Justinian's early life, as he was born to a Latin-speaking peasant family in Tauresium, which is now the Republic of Macedonia. His mother was the sister of a Excubitor, (the Imperial Bodyguard) Justin.
In the Roman Empire, Christianity started out being a very minuscule religion. However, as Christianity grew, it formed into a significant threat to Roman politics. Before Christianity, the Roman Empire was extremely diverse and they believed the emperor
These literary changes allowed consumers of these texts to improve their literacy by minimizing their exposure to flawed composition. Alcuin, integral to the Carolingian Renaissance, inherited the responsibility of revising said works of literature. Moreover, with the blessing and guidance of Charlemagne, he expanded the teachings at Aachen and a similar schooling system flourished throughout the empire. Furthermore, due to his loyalty to the Christian church, alongside his own personal beliefs, Charlemagne emphasized on literacy as he considered it to be essential to piety. The implementation of these schools was done so by various orders and laws enforced by the emperor; many of which called for knowledgable religious leaders, such as monks and clergy, to study the Bible and educate
By the mid 16th century, the Roman Catholic Church had been ruling most of Europe for a thousand years. European society and politics had been framed around the church and the pope. The church had complete authority in the feudal society and authority over the monarchy. Papal Infallibility, which means that the since the pope was the voice of god, then he was true, was a reason for why the church had not been questioned or had been attacked. Using the church’s powers, the pope was able to control every detail of Europe.
Historically, the first crusade commenced in 1095. This happened when Christian armies from Western Europe heed to the plea from the pope to battle Islamic forces based in the Holy Land. Essentially, there have been many debates concerning whether crusades were justifiable in bringing a certain order into the world. At first, the objective of the crusade that begun in 1095 achieved its objective following the Jerusalem capture. Christian invaders set up many Latin Christian States; while Muslim in the region swore to wage war against these Christian invaders.
While Alexander the Great was spreading Greek culture and capturing lands, Apostle Paul was spreading Christianity. While both had separate missions for different reasons, they both would indeed create their own legacy over time. Alexander the Great focused on the implementation of the Greek culture and language. Alexander the Great was the conqueror of the Mediterranean world. In comparison, the Greek civilization opened their arms to a universalism mentality like those of Christianity.
The Middle Ages, also known as the Dark Ages, lasted from 500-1500 C.E. Around that time, the Western Roman Empire fell, causing everything to go out of order in Western Europe. People during that time were basically Romans, and those living in the Eastern Roman Empire - the Byzantine Empire - were also Romans. Hence, the culture in the Medieval Ages was similar to the culture in the Byzantine Empire. Cultures, throughout the world, build on one another - just like how the Roman Empire influenced the Medieval Culture.
All of this was paid for with taxes. Indeed, support of the military was the single greatest expenditure of the Roman state. The payment of taxes, however, was the extent to which most Roman citizens contributed or (if they were lucky) interacted with the military. The cultural and social divide between soldier and civilian that had begun even before Augustus’ professionalization of military service had grown wider over the centuries. In the fourth and early fifth centuries ordinary citizens of the great metropolitan centers of the Empire—Rome, Alexandria, Constantinople—and
In terms of political and social structures, manorialism and feudalism were two major ones in Western Europe. Manorialism was a system of reciprocal economic and political obligations between landlords and peasants. Most individuals were serfs living on self-sufficient agricultural estates, also known as manors. In return for protection, they gave lords part of their crops and provided labor services. (p.215) Years later, Western Europe became very prosperous, and this prosperity promoted political change, influenced by structures established in more unstable times.
Besides being separated by an ocean, the Romans and Aztecs were very much alike. Both were ruled by emperors worshipped as a god, both had highly trained and skilled armies that contributed to their land control, and both believed in polytheistic religions. On the other hand, there are significant differences between the two empires, like the type of government system, economy, and social structure each civilization