CIRCULATORY SYSTEM 1. INTRODUCTION The circulatory system is also known as the cardiovascular system. This system is a double circulatory closed system which transports blood via arteries, veins and capillaries to the lungs through the pulmonary circulation and to the rest of the body tissues in the systemic circulation. Since the blood travels to varying distances around the body, the blood vessels have to be adapted to overcome different pressures. The pressure changes in the four chambers on the heart (two atria’s and two ventricles) allow the blood to continuously flow in one direction.
Total lung capacity (TLC) is the measure of how much air is in the lungs after a breath. Then the amount of tidal volume (TV) is how much air a person takes in during inspiration. An individual exhales naturally, but can also make themselves breath faster. When an individual forces an expiration it can be measured by forced expiratory volume (FCV), which is how much air a person forces out during their breath. (RV) which is known as residual volume is how much air remains in the lungs after a forced expiration.
What You Should Know About Having Healthy Blood Vessels A complex group of blood vessels, arteries in particular, that supplies the brain with important nutrients and oxygen are known as vertebrobasilar arteries. They are responsible for providing blood, which carries oxygen to the brain structures—occipital lobs, brain stem, and cerebellum. The basic functions of these structures include coordination, consciousness, and vision. So basically, each part is important to achieve and maintain good health. Atherosclerosis or the hardening of the arteries is one of the many health problems with blood vessels which could make the blood to flow adequately to the brain structures.
CO2 is then expelled and O2 enters the bloodstream, from there the re-oxygenated blood flows into organs and tissues expelling CO2 from and replacing it with oxygen. The blood finally pumps back to the atrium where the process begins again. (University of Waikato) (See fig.5 ) In humans, blood enters the heart from the posterior and anterior veins vena cava which carries de-oxygenated blood from parts of the body into the right atrium. From the right atrium the blood flows into the right ventricle and through the tricuspid valve which shuts when the ventricle is full. The blood exits the heart through the pulmonic valve, into the pulmonary artery and then into the lungs where gas exchange occurs.
• Systole is when the cardiac muscle contracts to push out the blood from the chamber they are in it. During ventricular systole the blood pressure increases in arteries. • Diastole is when the cardiac muscle is relaxed allowing allow the chamber to fill with blood. During ventricular diastole the blood pressure decreases in arteries. This leads to conclude that the higher blood pressure is the systolic pressure (for example 120 mmHg), and the lower blood pressure is the diastolic pressure (for example 80 mmHg).
This is why mammals need to breathe faster and deeper when exercising in order to absorb and remove the right amount of oxygen and carbon dioxide respectively for cell respiration. Advantages and Limitation A limitation of the mammal’s gaseous exchange system is tidal ventilation. Air is breathed in and breathed out using the same passage, so not all the oxygen will reach the gas exchange surface, and some air that has been breathed out still has oxygen in it. Some air does not make it out of the body so some air will not have oxygen in it. This is not a very efficient way of ventilating the lungs as not all the oxygen in the air is diffused into the blood.
Cardiovascular diseases (CVDS) Cardiovascular diseases comprise ailments that include the blood vessels (veins, arteries and capillaries) or the heart, or together or diseases that disturb the cardiovascular system. The cardiovascular system, also named as the circulatory system, is the system that transports blood all over the human body. It is composed of the heart, arteries, veins, and capillaries. It delivers oxygenated blood from the lungs and heart through the entire body by the arteries. Blood drives through the capillaries - vessels located between the veins and arteries.
Materials are exchanged between the blood and cells through the thin walls of the capillaries. The inner layer of blood vessels is lined with endothelial cells that create a smooth passage for the transit of blood. This inner layer is surrounded by connective tissue and smooth muscle that enable the blood vessel to expand or contract. Arteries are thicker the veins to hold the pressure of the blood being pumped from the heart. Blood in the veins is low pressure.
The primary function of the respiratory system is gas exchange, which consists of movement of oxygen into the body and removal of carbon dioxide. To achieve this goal, respiration can be divided and four major functions. First of all, we have pulmonary ventilation, which means the inflow and outflow of air between the atmosphere and the lung alveoli; second, the diffusion of oxygen and carbon dioxide occurs between the alveoli and the blood; after this, these gases are transported in the blood and body fluids to and from the tissue cells. Finally, all these steps are controlled and regulated by respiratory center and receptors. (GUYTON, A.C.; HALL, J.E.
The heart, blood, and blood vessels all form the circulatory system, also known as the cardiovascular system. As one of the most important systems in the human body, the circulatory system transports oxygen, nutrients, and hormones and removes any waste products. Without the circulatory system, your organs wouldn't be able to function, causing death. With the blood vessels taking blood around the body, the heart pumps all this blood. According to Ballard, "Inside the heart there are four spaces called chambers.