During the year of 313 CE, Constantine met his contender Licinius at Milan to negotiate on the policies associated to the Christian community. The rationality that lied behind the agreement was to eliminate the persecutions that were being faced by the Christians since long ago and to abolish the strict practices against them . Thus, the agreement allowed the religious freedom to all religious, slightly favoring Christianity. The Edict of Milan was indeed a milestone in legitimizing Christianity as official religion of the state in the years to come. At the time of agreement Constantine was still a pagan but he did not reduce his efforts to popularize Christianity.
The church had enormous power and was opposed to any socialist reforms. The wealth of the Spanish Catholic Church was resented by many, all middle to leftist movements saw the church as an enemy of change, while all the conservatives saw the church as the very heart of the Spanish civilization. When Manuel Azaña´s liberal government was established in 1931 he brought up a series of anti-clerical measures including the expulsion of Jesuits from Spain, allowance of divorce, the separation of the Church from the State and even stopped religious education in schools. The set of measures against the church brought up by the new government alienated the right wing of Spanish society and led to the foundation of the “Confederación Española de Derechas Autónomas” (CEDA) led by Gil Robles that would come to power in 1933. The church plays a big role on the course of Spanish history and its role in the civil war was crucial to stimulate the start of the rightist comeback.
Cromwell's time as Lord Protector changed how the Crown and Parliament interacted and worked with each other. His army laid the foundation for the Army's in England that came after. And he changed the landscape of religion in the isles, strengthening the Protestant majority and tearing down the Irish Catholics. His crusade against Charles the I and subsequent reign inspired the American colonists to go against military dictators. Though his time as a leader is remembered both negatively and positively his influence cannot be
Zain, I agree when you stated, “Ultimately, Protestant individualism allows its followers to feel connected to each other, but the lack of a central authority – much less an authority that has a stranglehold on the government – frees them from feeling chained to each other and its strong presence in America has allowed pluralism to thrive.”. Protestant individualism probably influenced the founders to have a separation of church and state because of Catholic persecution in the past. Since, Protestants do not have a central authority figure like the Pope it reduces corruption in the Church. As power can corrupt any single individual (i.e. the Pope) when they are given supreme authority over its followers.
During the 16th and 17th centuries the Scientific Revolution flourished. While it gained many supporters it had it’s fair share of opponents. Religious controversy, especially with the Catholic Church, hindered the work of scientists by creating barriers to stop the spread of scientific ideas. But many leaders, such as King Louis XIV, supported science for their own political purposes, helping in its advance. Although there was widespread support for science, the norms of society crippled the strength and effectiveness of those who hoped to further and embrace scientific ideas.
The Puritans were English Protestants who believed that the alterations of the Church of England did not go far enough. In their view the church was too Catholic. In England, the Puritans were people of political influence, but King Charles did not agree with their attempts to reform the church. There seemed to be no hope for them but to leave England because they were being persecuted. They believed in America they could establish a colony whose government, society, and church were all bases on the Bible.
Places in the “new world” that were under Spanish rule often were exceedingly religiously intolerant. As the Europeans gained more and more power religiously, Native American religions were silenced. As more settlers came to the new world from Europe, they brought Christianity with them, and Christianity’s popularity from Europe continued on in the new world. European contact with Native Americans deteriorated the Natives’ religions while strengthening the Europeans’
Although he was executed before being able to achieve his goal of gaining independence for indigenous Peruvians, Amaru’s perseverance and dedication to the Church throughout his rebellion is incredibly noteworthy. Although many historians argue that Amaru’s power was more important to him than his religion, his Catholicism was still always in the back of his mind. Personal accounts from some of his followers or family members might provide more evidence to verify the importance of his religion. Until these are discovered and analyzed, it is mostly up to our imaginations to wonder what the rebellion would have been like if Amaru was not
This started to alarm the established religious groups to a point where the movement for anti-Catholics took hold. Protestants were afraid that the Catholics would not sever their loyalty to the pope, and that they would not become a model of democracy (Koester, 2015 p. 91). This movement caused the Catholics to show how they would become good citizens. They proved to society that they meant
To clarify, the crusades were military expeditions to avoid the Ottoman Empire expansion. From the viewpoint of the Christians, the Muslims were enemies of Christ and his church. It was the crusader’s task to defeat and defend against them. Some of the crusades were successful and gained Christian states like Palestine and Syria. The Islamic states were growing rapidly and those gains reversed.
Prior to 1550, the European continent was dominated by Catholicism and had been for centuries. However, Protestantism first introduced by Martin Luther had begun to make inroads in the Holy Roman Empire and Nordic countries. Despite the growing popularity of these new religions, the majority of monarchs saw religious diversity as a weakness. Instead, most rulers pursued Religious uniformity to ensure political stability and strength. Examples of monarchs attempting to achieve religious university abound from Charles V in the Holy Roman Empire and Spain, to Rome, and to England.