Since the Muslims were in command of Jerusalem, the violent acts happening in the Byzantine Empire by the Muslims were happening in Jerusalem as well. The First Crusade, which was the most successful, was launched by Pope Urban II in 1095 when he was newly elected into papacy. Pope Urban II’s main objective in launching the First Crusade was not to take back Jerusalem, but an attempt
Occurring predominantly in Europe and the Middle East, the Crusades began in 1095 and officially ended in 1291 (History.com staff, 2010). This being said, the causes can be traced back to 1081 when Alexius Comnenus gained the Byzantine throne, becoming Emperor Alexius I, after years of chaos and invasions by the Seljuk Turks (History.com staff, 2010). In due time Emperor Alexius would begin to set his sights on reclaiming the Holy Land from the Muslims. Seeing that this task would require more than the Byzantine’s men, he reached out to Pope Urban II of the Roman Catholic Church asking him for troops (History.com staff, 2010). The Pope made his decision public at the 1095 Council of Clermont in Southern France where he raised the proposal for all able Western Christians to raise arms to aid the Byzantines.
The Crusades were a series of religious wars fought from 1095 to 1487. The first of the crusades began in 1095 when the Emperor of the Byzantine Empire, Alexios I, sent someone to request Pope Urban II to assist them with military support against the Turks. Pope Urban II quickly asked Catholic soldiers to join the first crusade. The first goal was to give the pilgrims access to areas in the Holy Land that Muslims were controlling. A more long-term goal would be to have the Eastern and Western parts of Christendom reunite.
France’s unity was only possible due to the leadership of their king who sought to make all of his people unified under one single religion. In an era subsequent to the wars of religion, where the world fought over both power and between religious beliefs of Catholicism and Protestantism, the Edict of Nantes was created in an attempt to make peace between the Catholics and Huguenots, French Protestants in 1598 by permitting Huguenots to worship. Believing that France should be united under one religion, Louis XIV revoked the Edict of Nantes in 1685: “The revocation of the Edict[of Nantes], signed by the King on October 18, ordered the demolition of all Protestant temples, the cessation of all Protestant services, the Catholic baptism of those born in the Protestant faith. The revocation was forced with the greatest brutality” (Ashley 92). Although it this may have been a strange move that was bound to cause tension between the Huguenots and the Catholics, Louis was determined to create unity in France regardless of what others thought.
The Crusades What were the crusades? The crusades were a series of wars between the Catholics and the Saracens which surprisingly we call Muslims now. The crusades started in 1095 when Pope Clermont preached the first crusade. In this exciting paper I will be talking about the different crusades and the effect they had in the middle ages. In the next paragraph I will talk about the first crusade then in the following paragraph, I will talk about the second crusade.
However, literary traditions about the Umayyads strongly suggest that the religious nature of the conquests dissolved after Muhammad’s death at 632 AD. The Arabs have not yet taken seriously a religious conflict with the Christian Byzantine Empire. Martin Sicker notes that when Damascus, “a major centre of Christian life in the East,” fell to Khalid ibn-al-Walid in 635 AD, Khalid preserved the Damascene churches, and merely asked the Damascenes to “pay the poll tax,” signifying a tolerance for Byzantine Christians. Although Khalid, as Cook also notes, was appointed a military commander by Muhammad himself, his tolerance of Christians imply that the further conquests of the Arabs after Muhammad’s death were no longer motivated by religion. Daniel W. Brown also writes that amidst the conquests of the Arabs, “Christians continued to be Christians and Jews continued to be Jews.” Another scholar, G. R. Hawting, argues that the first caliph of the Umayyad dynasty, Caliph Mu’awiya, “was respectful of the traditions of his Christian subjects” that he has a member of a Greek Orthodox family as a political official and advisor.
There was a greater benefit politically if he had considered the interests of both religious parties, therefore, that was the route that Henry IV selected, rather than the one in line with his religion. Furthermore, the decision of converting religions was an act of desperation. Henry “believed that force, if not, persuasion, could secure his throne. But three and a half years of [campaigning] failed to overcome his League enemies, and by early 1593 it was clear that Henry, if he wished ever to rule a unified France, had to convert to Catholicism.” (Dickerman 1-2) To Henry, if he did not seize this throne, the Catholic League would eventually elect a Catholic ruler and most likely, result in his inevitable execution. Henceforth, his utilization of religion by converting to Catholicism brought him the trust and respect of the mass French population, fulfilling his political interests by crowning him King.
Spain declared that they controlled the Atlantic region around the Canary Islands, Portugal would have the Atlantic region south of the Canary Islands and West of Africa. In 1481 the Pope issued the rights of the Aeterni Regis agreements, however Portugal argued that the islands discovered by Columbus were originally claimed by the Portuguese sailors long before the Spanish. Because of the two powers being strong in the Catholic belief and faith it came to the attention of Pope Alexander IV, this created the treaty of Tordelias, It was believed that Spain received the better half of the arrangement, this was due to the new continent being discovered. The line was never clearly marked out so therefore it could not change. A century passes and the Spanish seem to have gained the most of the treaty, by land, slave labour and raw
They sought a simpler kind of Christian worship, with the emphasis on the individual’s own conscience and direct relationship with God, without the intervention of the Virgin Mary and all the saints, never mind about the control of priests, cardinals and the Pope, who were seen as being too powerful, too wealthy and too corrupt. Protesting against the doctrines of the Church of Rome, members of the new and very different religion became known as Protestants. (Possibly with the emphasis on the 2nd syllable originally, though we now stress the first syllable.) Meanwhile in England, there was an added historical ingredient to go into the mix. Most people know that 1.
Although the general story of “Beowulf” was created as early as 700 AD by northern european pagan invaders, these Anglo-Saxon and Scandinavian invaders would later experience a large-scale conversion to Christianity at the end of the sixth century, which would ultimately result in a Christian interpretation/translation of the story of Beowulf. Despite the Christian adaptation introducing more of an emphasis on the Christian values of faith in and reliance on God, Beowulf retains its original scandinavian cultural pagan themes of revenge and battle while accepting Christian symbolism and metaphors. A part of “Cain’s clan, whom the creator had outlawed / and condemned as outcasts” Grendel, like Cain, is an outcast of society and the embodiment of evil. Doomed to forever roam in the shadows, Grendel remains an alienated outsider looking inside. Essentially, Grendel represents an outside threat to the order of society and all that is good.
Charlemagne was a military conqueror so he used this talent into the service of the church and for taking over most of western Europe and to compel his subject people into converting into Christianity. He sponsored many subtle military efforts. Charlemagne’s military way was first undertaken in the Aquitanian War, then the Lombard War than later on the Saxon War. Charles himself fought two pitches in this Saxon War. So a difference in the political backgrounds of Charlemagne and King Louis was that King Louis was more
This event rallied the Christians onto victory and laid to rest any latent desire of Christians to convert to Islam. At the same time, Allen assumes that the appearance of the Holy Lance caused an increase in the desire by Christian crusaders to convert the Muslim, rather than kill them. Peter the Hermit’s most interesting heroics occurred when he attempted to convert Kerbogha to Christianity. Kerbogha a great leader and fierce Muslim warrior refused the offer of conversion and the suggestion of resolving the conflict by using the battle of champions. Allen question Peter’s motives in asking Kerbogha to convert, however, it is Allen’s position that Peter was the type of man who would have ceased upon the appearance of the Holy Lance and then dedicated himself to the conversion of all people to Christianity.