Eastern and Western European countries had many differences on economics and political structures. Both the East and the West tried to achieve an absolute monarchy, which can be described as a type of government where the monarch has complete rule over everything. Although both had an absolute monarchy at some point, they were structured differently and one much more successful than the other. In Eastern Europe the members of nobility had almost all of the control over the poor peasants who lived in their community.
The Han Dynasty of China and the Pax Romana coexisted in different regions of the world for a short period of history. Each of them had their own belief of government. For the Han Dynasty it was all about following the Confucian values that had been established, and for the Romans, it was almost a new era of Roman rule, this time with less expansionism. While there were many similarities between the two, there were also significant differences because of things such as societal practices, religion, and power structure. Militaries were different, cultural outlook was different; these were things that ultimately would affect each empire in the end.
Japan during the Muromachi Period was known not to have isolation policies enforced by its government(unlike Japan’s later years). It’s geography naturally made it more isolated over other regions around it, and it wasn’t until 1543 until Portugal actually landed in Japan for the first time. It was also known that religion practices that Japan had during this time were not entirely regulated by the government. With the constant warfare going on through the years, many people turned to religion as an output. The most dominant religion that derived off of Buddhism would have to be Zen Buddhism, other religions included most notably Shinto.
For the people who supported the monastic tradition, they tried to combine Pure Land into Chan Buddhism’s teaching. One of the supporters Chuhung (1535-1615) once mentioned that there were no big differences between the Buddhists teaching because they were all based on Chan Buddhism. (Amstutz 1997, 4) At the same time, people did not like the monks and they doubted their actions. Additionally, smart people usually studied hard in examination to be the government officials.
Over thousands of years ago in Ancient Greece many early civilizations formed in making a powerful civilized society. Many civilizations were successful at one point, but other civilizations did not have as much success. Much success was because of the size of the army and in addition the power one civilization had. One early successful civilizations that did not rely so much on the size of the army or society, but relied more on the quality of the army and making sure everyone works as one unit. Sparta was a city-state located in Ancient Greece that was based off a strict warrior society known as Lacedaemon.
The Gupta Empire however took the opposite approach. Their government was similar to the Persian Empire in the sense that it was divided into provinces. Each province had viceroys who were governors responsible for the administration of the province. The provinces were divided into districts which had its own local administration. The local government was essentially free from central control.
Because of that great masses are superfluous and can be sacrificed for the greater good of the rest (Arendt 9). One could add that these societies consist of a lot of different ethnicity which with the use of an ideology could be politically united. The Chinese government is already since decades busy creating unity and using communism as their ideology. Although China is by far not a totalitarian regime. While there is one-party rule it allows cultural pluralism and does not try to fully control and mobilize all citizens (Roy 234-235).
“As we all know the Roman Empire, big empires go down if the borders are not well-protected”- (Mark Rutte). This quote was chosen because it says that even big empires go down if they are not well protected. One example of this was The Roman Empire, it was a big empire and was the most extensive political and social structured in western civilization, but since they weren´t well protected it fell. The Ancient Roman Army is different from the Roman´s Army nowadays. One example of this is the Roman Army, back then they weren’t allowed to marry while they were serving the army, and nowadays they are free to marry and free to have their own rights.
On the political side, European countries had heavy influence amongst politicians or rulers of African and Asian countries. In most cases, Europeans ruled their colonies with the help of, and sometimes completely through, intermediaries and collaborators. Because of their small numbers relative to local populations, most European colonizers resorted to indirect rule, relying on the governments that were already there but exerting control over their leaders. Now, this isn’t to say that indigenous rulers were simply puppets; often they retained real power. This was certainly true in India, where more than a third of the territory was ruled by Indian princes.
Continuing conflict with the Safavid Empire through much of the period due to not wanting Shi’ a Islam to spread and took Iraq from Safavids. The Ottoman Empire was the most powerful empire military wise, but government corruption prevented necessary advancements to be made and thus gave the empire no political power amongst other regions. Intellectual
Rome used their military to expand the empire. The United States did not use their military to expand the country they instead used religion in the form of manifest destiny to drive their citizens to go and settle the land, only using the military to protect the citizens. Another difference between the use of the military is that when the US gained an area of land they moved the native population to reservations and did not try to assimilate them into their culture like the Romans did. While the US did not try to spread their culture like the Romans did their ideals have spread to other
Our national government has not always dad this much influence over matters concerning this country. Under the Articles of Confederation, power for the national government was vastly limited compared to the current central government today. The people who wrote the Articles where worried about a strong central government that would oppress them like the King did. In turn they came up with the Articles of Confederation which gave greater power to the states instead of the national government. Under the Us Constitution the central government know has more power than it did under the Articles of Confederation to stabilize the United States.
Due to China’s Warring Period after the Han Dynasty, Buddhism gained popularity because no imperial authority was around to enforce laws. Once an empire rose to power, Buddhism was turned against. Initially the Chinese defended Buddhism and its policies, but after centuries, others increasingly analyzed how Buddhism had not presence in older documents. Buddhism began to be blamed for the political and social problems of Chinese society. An additional document, such as a graph, that demonstrates actual numbers of Buddhist converts of this time period would help determine if the given documents’ author’s statements about Buddhism were accurate.
Though many Western civilizations have influenced the way we live our lives today, many forget the progressive movements of early Classical and Contemporary Oriental cultures. Two of these cultures that are still revisited by historians today were the epitome of early Asian civilization and very influential guides for cultures to come. Han China (206 B.C.E.-220 A.D.) and Gupta India (320 C.E.-525 C.E.) were two dynasty-based civilizations in the early conception of Southeastern Asian rule. Though both had a very similar class based society and both had to endure outside invasions as well as internal conflicts, they both had unique, and future utilized, ways of maintaining their rule. Both of these cultures needed to keep order and stability within their borders to maintain a prosperous society.
Rome and China: The Two Empires on the Opposite Ends of Eurasia During the Antiquity, two major powers at the time were the Imperial China and Rome, with Rome in Europe and China in East Asia. Being that both empires were located on the opposite ends of Eurasia, direct interaction between the two powers was incredibly rare, not to mention the fact that there were both physical and political barriers between China and Rome. Despite the distance between them, the two empires had managed to influence each other significantly. While there is evidence of interaction between China and Rome, nearly all instances were indirect. Nevertheless, Classical China and Rome, by expanding and exploring, were able to greatly influence each other indirectly,