Kolhberg 's theory of moral development states that we progress through three levels and six stages of moral thinking that build on our cognitive development. In stage six of his 'post-conventional level ', Kohlberg explains that we reach a level of moral reasoning that defines the principles of justice. These principles apply to all which, practically speaking, leads us to "reach just decisions by looking at a situation through one another 's eyes" (Jahn, Unit 4, Slide 15). Keeping Jim 's scenario in mind, if anyone were to place themselves in his shoes, they could see that the decision is not as obvious as Utilitarians make it out to be. To do anything that goes against your morality would leave anyone pondering what the 'right decision ' really is.
This essay will be discussing two different theories of learning; Behaviorism and Constructivism. Watson and Skinner, two major theorists of the behaviorist theory tried to prove that human behavior could be controlled and foreseen. Both Skinner and Watson investigated how learning could be affected by a change in ones environment. However, the constructivist theory viewed learning as an exploration of meaning. Piaget and Vygotsky, two of the major advocates for Constructvist theory, both explored factors that could help figure out how children understand learning at different stages in their lives.
Introduction - While reading various texts that Ann Brown has written I began to see that her opinion was that the goal of social studies educators is to foster the development of effective citizens. But to properly approach this goal, I seen there needs to be a shift from what Dewey called the “traditional” structure of education (Dewey, 1938). In the current or traditional method, one proposed method to change this process is the application of the theory of social constructivism. Social constructivism focuses on the role that social interaction plays in creating knowledge. According to this, model knowledge is formed based on social interaction and social consensus.
A person’s behavior towards others directly and indirectly affects a lot of others. At times, it is easier to blame others or something than admit one’s weakness. This calls to mind the importance of acting responsibly towards others. Arvind Devalia ( 2008 ), the author of book about “Personal Social Responsibility”, shared that personal social responsibility is all about doing to others what one would like others do to him. It is about recognizing how one’s behavior affects others, and holding himself accountable for his actions.
Moral development is the gradual development of an individual’s concept of right or wrong – conscious, religious values, social attitudes and certain behaviour. Kohlberg’s theory of moral development can be used by teachers in classroom in following ways:- - Incorporate role-playing and use of scenarios to teach objectives of Family and Consumer Science curriculum. - Develop tests that use scenarios and questions specific to the scenarios. - Develop projects where students must use skills of application and evaluation - Develop method of incorporating student input into classroom disciplinary procedures. - Develop writing assignments for classroom disciplinary infractions.
Cognitive psychologists challenge the limitation of behaviourism in its focus on observable behaviour. Changes in behaviour are observed, and used as indicators as to what is happening inside the learners mind (Dembo, 1994). Ogwo and Oranu (2006) states that cognitive theory is significant to the entire learning process because, it stresses on human intelligent and its potential for helping learners to retain, process and apply acquired information in future. Cognitive learning theory
Prior to writing this semester paper, I have identified Bronfenbrenner’s ecological systems theory and provided a concise interpretation of it in my ‘Action Plans’ . As stated by Pollard (2014, p. 205): “when considering the creation of a learning environment, with the learner at the center, it is useful to begin by looking more generally at the complex ‘layers’ which exist within and around any learning space, and which can affect a person’s development”. The ecological systems theory of Bronfenbrenner (1979, 1993) (as cited in Pollard, 2014, p. 205) gives a useful way to think about these layers. Bronfenbrenner depicts the child in the central concentric circle while other layers of environment keep on expanding. The first layer includes
In addition to the impact of cultural and family backgrounds on morality, situational ethics also contributes to morality in the form of different circumstances and a person 's cognitive abilities. In Trevinos study about the model of cognitive moral development, he explored “how people determined what was right or wrong in a particular situation” (Trevino 604). This model focuses on the “reasons an individual uses to justify a moral choice, rather than the decision itself” (Trevino 604). It is also concluded that “[o]ur biology does not prescribe the specific forms our morality takes” (Singer 337). An experiment in which situational ethics are present would be the Trolley Problem.
The level 3 is post conventional morality, in this level people judgement is based on self-chosen and moral reasoning. According this level, the fifth stage is social contrast and individual rights and the sixth develop their own set of moral guidelines which may or may not fit the law. Practical application of Kohlberg’s theory in the real teaching world Since we are human beings, we have some beings, we have some set of rules and moralities in the society. It may differ from persons to persons. As a child, it is high chance to neglect the morality and laws in the class room.
Have a Scientific procedure, meaning the learning model must have a systematic procedure to change the behavior of the students. 2. Having the details of the learning outcomes (specification of learning outcome), meaning all learning models mention the results of learning in detail about student performance. 3. Mention the learning environment (specification of environment), meaning each model of learning specifies the environmental conditions in which students' responses are observed.