Veins transport blood to the heart and lungs at low pressure after receiving it from the capillaries. Valves inside the veins keep blood moving in one direction. The human body's arterial system branches out from one main artery, the dorsal aorta. Like veins, arteries have three layers: an outer layer of tissue, an inner layer of epithelial cells and a layer of muscle in between. Arteries deliver oxygenated blood to the capillaries, where the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide takes place.
The Aorta does not send blood into the bird’s lungs, but pumps blood into all other areas of the body. One of the other major arteries in the body is the Pulmonary Artery. This is the artery that transfers blood to the lungs. The last major artery in the duck, is the Femoral which transfers blood to the legs and thighs which are used as transportation for
6-78). It is the passageway between the pharynx and the stomach. “Each end of the esophagus is encircled by muscular sphincters that act as valves to regulate passage of material. The upper esophageal sphincter in the cervical part of the esophagus helps prevent air entering the esophagus during
3- Pharynx (throat): Pharynx is a muscular tube which function is to connect posterior end of the nasal cavity and to the superior end of the esophagus and larynx. Anatomically pharynx is divided into: Nasopharynx: posterior of the nasal cavity, and it receives air that is inhaled by the nasal cavity. Oropharynx: posterior of the oral cavity, and it receives air that is inhaled by oral cavity. Laryngopharynx: the end of pharynx, when the air reaches laryngopharynx the air will be diverted to the larynx. Epiglottis: it is an elastic cartilage covered with a mucus membrane located at the entrance of larynx.
The principal arteries of supply to the head and neck are the “two common carotids; they ascend in the neck and each divides into two branches. One is the external carotid, supplying the exterior of the head, the face, and the greater part of the neck and two the internal carotid, supplying to a great extent the parts within the cranial and orbital cavities” (Common). Coronary Arteries are the network of arteries that encircles the heart to provide its blood supply. The two primary coronary arteries, the right coronary artery and the left coronary artery, branch from the aorta as it arises from the left ventricle. The left coronary artery is significantly larger and supplies the left heart.
(Although widely used in practice, no evidence indicates that the auscultatory method is useful for determining tube location.) D. Do not use the water bubbling method (holding the proximal end of a feeding tube under water and observing for bubbles upon exhalation) to determine tube location. (There are documented incidents where patient can accidently inhale water through the tube into the lung. A false-negative result can occur when the tube 's ports are occluded by the airway mucosa, and a false-positive result can occur because the stomach often contains air.) E. Secure tube with tape and mark exit site on tube with ink or markers and document in patient 's medical record.
A thick papillary layer II. A thin reticular layer 1.2.3. Hypodermis It is deeper subcutaneous layer which is made up of connected groups of adipocytes and connective tissues. Hypodermis is distributed all over the body mainly on abdominal belt, thighs, on hips and below the waist. Hypodermal fat act as heat insulator in body.
In Cellular Respiration, cells use oxygen to release energy stored in sugars such as glucose. In fact, most of the energy used by the cells in your body is provided by cellular respiration. In fact, most of the energy used by the cells in your body is provided by cellular respiration. The process begins when glucose in the cytoplasm is broken down into smaller molecules. This releases a small amount of energy.
Heart is a four-chambered muscular pumping organ that divides into atriums and ventricles that are separated by valves to prevent backflow of blood among the compartments (Smeltzer, Bare, Hinkle, & Cheever, 2010). However, heart undergoes two types of circulatory loops in the transportation of blood which are systemic and pulmonary circulation (Taylor, n.d.). Systemic circulation pumps oxygenated blood from heart into all tissues in the body and return the deoxygenated blood back into the heart via vena cava (Taylor, n.d.). On the other hand, pulmonary circulation responsible in the transportation of deoxygenated blood into the lungs for gaseous exchange that results in the return of oxygenated blood into the heart via pulmonary vein (Taylor, n.d.). Another major component of CVS is blood
Lingula and the central lobule separated by the precentral fissure, central lobule and the culmen separated by the preculminate sulcus. The hemispheric connection of the central lobule is known as the ala and that of the culmen is known as the anterior quadrangular lobule. The lingula is generally considered not to have any hemispheric extension(27–29). The paramedian sulcus on the anterior lobe is shallow and there is a smooth transition from vermis to the hemisphere hence the hemispheric portion of the anterior lobe is sometimes called simple lobule(27). At the paramedian sulcus though grossly it may appear the vermis to be in continuity with the hemisphere there may be discontinuation of the cortex and the white fibres may be exposed at these regions, more so in the posterior lobe where the paramedian sulcus is prominent and deep(27).The posterior lobe is bounded by the primary fissure anteriorly and posterolateral fissure posteriorly, vermis of the posterior lobe has 5 lobules namely declive, folium tuber, pyramid and
(Steve Parker 2007) The hearts wall are made of a special muscle known as cardiac muscle this type of muscle is only found in the heart because of its uniqueness, the muscle needs the ability to constantly contract without becoming weak or tired and to maintain this the muscle needs a continuous supply of oxygenated blood from the coronary arteries. The left and right side of the heart is divided by the septum, the septum also does not allow oxygenated and deoxygenated blood to mix and also helps support the
When you breathe in, air enters your nose or mouth, then goes to the windpipe, also called the trachea from there, the air travels into the lungs through the breathing tubes. These airways divide like branches of a tree and get smaller and smaller until they reach the end of the line. At the end of the smallest airways are the alveoli tiny sacs deep in the lungs. That 's where your lungs take oxygen out of the air and move it into your blood — an important step because every part of
The pharynx is also part of the respiratory system and it is known as the throat in simpler words. It is a tube that leads to the stomach and lungs. The larynx has three main divisions the nasopharynx, oropharynx, and the laryngopharynx. The nasopharynx is where air passses, oropharynx is where food and air pass through, and lastly the laryngopharynx is also where the air and food pass through. Another part of the respiratory system is the larynx which is also known as the voice box.