Research means search for facts, answers to questions and solutions to the problem. It is a purposive investigation and an organized inquiry. It seeks to find an explanation to an unexplained phenomenon to clarify the doubtful facts and to correct the misconceived facts. The term ‘Research’ should be used in a technical sense as an academic activity. (C.R Kothari, 2009 ) According to Clifford Woody Research consists of: • Defining and redefining problems.
• Project can be used to generalize concepts more widely, predict future results, or investigate causal relationships. • The overarching aim of a quantitative research study is to classify features, count them, and construct statistical models in an attempt to explain what is observed. METHODOLOGY OF QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH The overall structure for a quantitative design is based in the scientific method. It basically uses deductive reasoning, where the researcher is to form a hypothesis, collect the data in an investigation of the problem, and then to use the data from the investigation, after analysis is made and conclusions are shared, to prove the hypotheses to be not false or false. Thus the basic procedure of a quantitative design is: 1.
Research in common parlance refers to a search for knowledge. Once can also define research as a scientific and systematic search for pertinent information on a specific topic. In fact, research is an art of scientific investigation. The Advanced Learner’s Dictionary of Current English lays down the meaning of research as “a careful investigation or inquiry especially through search for new facts in any branch of knowledge.”1 Redman and Mory define research as a “systematized effort to gain new knowledge.”(Redman & Mory; 1923) he types of research brings to light the fact that there are two basic approaches to research, viz., quantitative approach and the qualitative approach. The former involves
Before I evaluate I would like to discuss what media theory is, and how we use it. Theory is a systematic way of thinking, it is an idea used to justify a course of action. It describes reality, it’s a heuristic device and helps in understanding the world. It is grounded in epistemology. A theory in scientific terms is most familiar but it renders the same concept, it is an explanation of some aspect of the natural world that is obtained through the scientific method and repeatedly tested and confirmed, using a written, pre-defined, protocol of observations and experiments.
It indeed has several characteristics that are similar to positivism. They both utilize scientific approach to study and implement the research. The underlying assumptions are similar as well. In realism, the two most outstanding branches are direct realism and critical realism. The direct realism believe that our sense which captures the world is reliable.
Research design According to Vogt (1993, p. 196, cited in Hussey & Hussey, 1997, p. 114) research design is the art and science of planning procedures for conducting studies in order to get the most valid findings. For this particular research will be used mixed methods design. This is a research design with philosophical
In this essay will be discussed some agreements with the statement as well as dissension. Area of knowledge – the real life situation belonged to human science and natural science. The ways of knowing such as sense perception, reason and emotions would be discussed. Knowledge question: Are there any other forms of knowledge production
International relations is a human activity in which persons from more than one nation, individually and in groups, interact. International relations are carried on by up close and personal contact and through more indirect communications. Being scientific is knowledge about or study of the natural world based on facts learned through experiments and observation, a system of knowledge covering general truths or the operation of general laws especially as obtained and tested through scientific method such knowledge or such a system of knowledge concerned with the physical world and its phenomena. Positivist approaches opened the floodgate of scientific method of explanation in International Relations, where the success or failure of predictions
What is the difference between the null hypothesis and the research hypothesis? A hypothesis is a potential explanation for some phenomenon, such as a cause-and-effect relationship, that can be tested to be proven or disproven. The research hypothesis (H1) is the potential explanation that will either be proven or disproven and that was inspired by a theory or observations, and we accept the research hypothesis if it is proven correct through experimentation. The null hypothesis (H0) is a statement that falsifies the research hypothesis. We reject the research hypothesis if the null hypothesis is proven through
The research process starts with asking at least one question about a specific phenomenon of interest, the research question will help a researcher to direct attention, thoughts, efforts, in deciding on the most suitable approach to answer the question and then make sense of the phenomenon of interest (Saunders, Lewis, & Thornhill, 2009). To ensure that others appreciate the results of the research, a researcher needs to explain the philosophical approach that has been used in answering the research question that in essence helps to validate the research outcome (Saunders, Lewis, & Thornhill,