(n.d.) “Kant's criticisms of utilitarianism have become famous enough to warrant some separate discussion. Utilitarian moral theories evaluate the moral worth of action on the basis of happiness that is produced by an action.” “The utilitarian theories are driven by the merely contingent inclination in humans for pleasure and happiness, not by the universal moral law dictated by reason.” “His ethical theory has been as influential as, if not more influential than, his work in epistemology and metaphysics. Most of Kant's work on ethics is presented in two works. The Foundations of the Metaphysics of Morals (1785) is Kant's "search for and establishment of the supreme principle of morality." In The Critique of Practical Reason (1787) Kant attempts to unify his account of practical reason with his work in the Critique of Pure Reason.
To start out we have to understand some of the key concepts of Deontology. Firstly what is a Categorical Imperative? Well according to Robert Johnson who wrote in ‘The Stanford Encyclopaedia of Philosophy’ “it is an imperative because it is a command…It is categorical in virtue of applying to us unconditionally…” so in other words it is moral actions that Kant wants us to apply universally without thought. Second is that of Maxims; Garrath Williams who also wrote in The Stanford Encyclopaedia said “the principle that unity is to be sought after none the less forms (what Kant calls) a ‘maxim’ or regulative principle or reason.” It is also important to keep in mind that according to Kant as told by William Cunningham
Finally, I hope to provide a counterargument for some of Kant’s Categorical Imperatives downfalls. Kant states the Categorical Imperative as: "Act as if the maxim of your action were to become through your will and general natural law." When proceeding
In the late 18th century, German philosopher Immanuel Kant wrote extensively on the basis of morals. In his Grounding for the Metaphysics of Morals¸ Kant describes the dichotomy present in humans which is a result of humans being both a rational and a natural creature. The rational portion of human pulls them towards acting morally through use of reason. At the same time, the natural aspect of human beings acts as a counterweight, pulling people towards their natural inclinations, especially self-interest. The strength of this counterweight seems massive when a look is taken at human history.
Immanuel Kant (1724-1804) Deontology: the Ethics of Duty When it comes to Moral theories we have to understand what Immanuel Kant has written on . The concept of the “good will” The concept of duty Three principles The Categorical Imperative The Hypothetical Imperative Autonomy and Heteronomy of will Kant on the concept of respect Contemporary Deontologists The concept of the “good will” and Duty An action has moral worth only when performed by an agent who possesses a good will An agent has a good will only if moral obligation based on a universally valid norm is the action’s sole motive When it comes to the concept of duty, Kant writes that all persons must act not only in accordance with, but for the sake of, obligation
As previously discussed, this is putting greater emphasis on the human psychology rather than the reasoning used by Plato. When removing the transcendent from Plato, Nietzsche is also removing the transcendent from the modern world and is therefore removing the transcendent God seen within Christianity. This, in turn, means Nietzsche is reaching his aim of removing the Christian moralisation, which he believed has corrupted the civilisation due to the internalisation of cruelty from the master vs slave complex. By putting emphasis on our human psychology, this is similar to the works by Freud who believed that psychology was our main way to understand human interactions and also to greater understand the world around us. Both of these approaches are moving away from the idealist doctrines of Kant and Christianity and is offering a materialist approach to understanding morality.
A useful definition of egocentric is in the Merriam-Webster dictionary, which defines it as “concerned with the individual rather than society.” In the context of this argument, an egocentric view of morality would align with Mavrodes’ idea that it would be irrational for a person to have a moral obligation that would cause him a net loss of Russellian benefits. Next, the concept of morality in this argument has already been addressed by Mavrodes: once all things have been considered, “morality ‘includes [...] judgements of the form ‘N ought to do (or to avoid doing) ________’” (216). Finally, Merriam-Webster’s law dictionary’s definition of rationality defines being rational as “relating to, based on, or guided by reason, principle, fairness, logic... or a consideration of fact.” In other words, a person acting rationally is doing so based on reason, logic, and
An avid supporter of Kant may argue an amoralists paradigm. They may rearticulate Kant 's perception on rationality--all people who choose to be rational are consistent which is a primary law of the Principle of Universalizability. If the Principle of Universalizability is obeyed then the person must be moral. A supporter may conclude the argument by articulating that if one is rational, then one is moral. But in further analysis, the amoralist has a more fundamental understanding of the human condition.
Immanuel Kant was an significant leader in the development of modern philosophy, formulating unique inputs and contributions. Kant constantly pleaded that “the moral worth of an action is to be judged not by its consequences but by the nature of the maxim or principle that motivated the action” (Cahn and Markie, 314). When looking at Kant’s point of view and ideology, he was a leader in deontology believing the theory of the ‘right’. Kant believed that humans of this world should do the right thing for the right reason, instead of doing things for the following consequences or the rewards afterwards. When dissecting Kant’s studies, he believed in the supreme moral principle that is called the Categorical Imperative.
Background Kantian ethics are based around the idea of duty (Velleman 19). Kant believes that everyone has a duty to act morally and do the right thing. What Kant means by duty is simply a practical requirement (Velleman 19). For example, we have a duty or practical requirement to tell the truth. According to David Velleman, Kant believes there is a force for moral requirements that is independent from God,