Having been adamant believers in such laws, the founding fathers thought the best way to protect the natural rights of American citizens was to establish laws that are in agreement with divine laws. They believed that God brought the world into being with series of principles by which it should be governed. From their perspective, the American people would not be able to continue to exist as an independent civilization without the protection of these principles. Thomas Jefferson, referring to Natural Law, wrote the following words in the Declaration of Independence: "We hold these truths to be self-evident: that all men are created equal; that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable rights; that among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness" (The Declaration of Independence, U.S. 1776, para. 2). In writing those words in the Constitution, Jefferson believed that life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness were part of the human nature that every human being is entitled to.
John Locke wrote the Second Treatise, a document in which he discusses the idea of the laws of Nature. From his understanding he believes that in order to fully understand what your government is like you need to view it in a natural way. All men are born equal, none of them are better or above one another. Each man his own separate rights. They have the freedom to order their own lives and property.
John Locke believed that all men had natural rights and they could state a person 's freedom and they could manage their belongings. In John Locke’s book, he says that “...We must consider, what state all men are naturally in…”(Document A). John Locke believed that the same species and rank should also be equal. Locke in his book stated that all men had natural rights to how they could manage their stuff. Adam Smith believed that all men were free to pursue their own interests in his own way.
This contradicts the assumption that God is the creator of all norms. (Based on Darwall 's Philosphical Ethics p. 42-44). 2) God created us, therefore we must follow his commands out of gratitude. Again, we face the problem that there appears to be a norm that exists independently from his command: that you should show gratitude, which seems inconsistent. (Darwall 's Philosophical Ethics p. 44).
John Locke, a 17th century philosopher from England, was a man who contained many ideas and theories on how particular civilizations should operate. John Locke philosophized “that there was an unspoken law amongst men known as “The Law of Nature” (“state of nature” Locke). The “law of nature” depicts a community in which there was only moral law. Thus the “law of nature” portrays a “state of perfect freedom where all men share their equality” (“state of nature”4). This statement basically states that “no one has power over another and are free (Locke 4)” to govern themselves accordingly.
In John Locke’s “Two Treatises on Government,” Locke mentions the “natural state” in which every person has an equal right to use natural resources provided by the “spontaneous hand of nature” (Locke Sec. 26). However, if every person has the right to these resources, the question remains as to what is considered private property. The key to Locke’s moral transition from common territory to private ownership was his conception of self-ownership, or property in one’s
Locke defined freedom or liberty as certain rights that humans are innately born with as a condition of our being. This can be seen in “the state all men are naturally in, and that is, a state of perfect freedom” and in “thus we are born free.” (pg 8 & 34) These rights that defined Locke’s freedom are that of life, liberty, property, health, and pursuit of happiness. (pg 9).
According to Calvin, the laws of the state should be positive laws that are grounded in God's law as revealed in nature and written in God’s Word. “Calvin’s views regarding government stemmed from his belief in the necessity of civil authority because of the depravity of man, his belief in providence, and his uncompromising certainty that God is sovereign over all things, including governments.” In “Prefatory
Thomas Aquinas is the second critique of Anselm’s position. Take note that Aquinas assumed that the existence of God is obvious. He supported cosmological argument to prove that God exists. The cosmological argument uses the physical things that exist in the universe to demonstrate God’s existence. In his criticism of Anselm’s argument, Aquinas disagrees with the use of the word “God” and argues only some who hear the word “God” understands what it means (Himma, 4).
Consequently, monarchy and its one ruler system trumps all other government systems, simply due to the fact that monarchy reflects God’s natural structure. Eusebius applauded Constantine and his monarchy because, “he [Constantine] directs his gaze above, and frames his earthly government