Free will is an illusion: anyone who deviates from the norm is considered a mistake, and either forcibly brought back to conformity or destroyed. It is either utopia or hell, depending on the perspective. IT says its various offshoots are happy, but does happiness have any meaning in such a tightly controlled environment? In the story, IT possessed Charles Wallace asks the reason why we have wars and unhappiness on earth. He replies by saying that people live their own, separate lives unlike the residents of Camazotz.
That good is “freedom... the glory of the democratic state”(The Republic, Plato). Democracy emphasizes maximum freedom and personal liberty, but Plato imagines that this leads to a kind of anarchy with “subjects who are like rulers and rulers who are like subjects” (The Republic, Plato). Plato fears a breakdown of the natural order of society, a corruption in the hierarchy upon which Athenian society was based. Then this “anarchy finds its way into private houses” (The Republic, Plato), with sons disobeying fathers and slaves turning against their masters. Society as a whole will strive for the extremes of liberty; freedom of slaves, and the liberty and equality of the
Hobbes was hired by the Cavendish family to tutor the Earls of Devonshire. While working for the Cavendish family, Hobbes wrote his famous book Leviathan. In this book he discussed the idea of ‘state of nature’ which is the concept that man without rule is chaos. His idea that monarchy is the only logical form of rule was influenced by his surroundings. Locke, Hobbes’s opposing philosopher, was born years later on August 29, 1632, in Wrington, Somerset, England.
Harnessing examples from Tom Ze and the Tropicalist movement and de Andrade’s Cannibalist Manifesto results in an overall influential piece. It puts forth a desire to seek cultural and personal autonomy as one realizes how tied up humanity is in the notion of ‘intellectual property’. Ze was quite right in stating, “we are at the end, thus, of the composers’ era, inaugurating the plagi-combinator era.” We have reached an impasse in society wherein creation is virtually impossible without the indirect or direct aid of another visionary. We reached the climax of original creation long ago, and it is time that the definition of plagiarism was re-evaluated. The Tropicalist movement is a prime example of feeding off other societies and ideas to formulate a cultural product all your own.
In order to restore freedom to mankind, Rousseau suggests there has to be a social contract. The establishment of a social contract in the society requires mankind to wilfully let a political entity govern him and his private property. This kind of submission is called the general will and it aims to govern mankind by allowing free and equal co-existence. Rousseau’s argument is based on the single notion that mankind is generally good by nature, but made evil by the society. However, his argument is not plausible since it does not explain how a society which he claims to be evil is composed of good mankind.
On 12 March 1868, John Stuart Mill first coined the word ‘dystopia’ in his Parliamentary speech on Mr. Maguire’s Motion on the State of Ireland (Mill, 1988). Dystopia is an antonym of utopia, a word that Sir Thomas More coined and used as the title of his famous work, Utopia in 1516 (More, 1516/1992). Editors Claeys and Sargent (1999) defined dystopia as a society that is invented to be far worse than contemporary society. Dystopia is also a society that is characterized on what is against the author’s characteristic spirit of a society, including oppression, public suspicion, and mass poverty (Apocalyptic Literature, 1993). A dystopian society is a menacing setting which serves as a warning to us about totalitarian futures that seem all too likely and real (Kennon, 2005).
Grell’s and Porter’s Toleration in Enlightenment Europe focuses on “the ambiguities, limits, fluctuations … [and] the extension of toleration in the Enlightenment.” The book addresses ideas of Voltaire, Locke, Montesquieu as well as other writers, who, maybe less known, contribute significantly to this concept. Theory and practice differed greatly, as shown by examples of ideas of enlightened thinkers and several rulers in 17th and 18th century Europe. Grell and Porter (2000) though the demand to reform it was present. Locke stated that “man was born free and under universal law in state of Nature”. Therefore, despots have no rights to force religion upon their citizens.
The essay ‘Two concepts of Liberty’ is a brilliant quest to what defines the individual freedom “Why should anyone obey anyone else?” The ideas behind this question are obedience and coercion. Which, therefore, in absence or presence, will define and distinguish, the two systems of ideas developed by Sir Isaiah Berlin. Both systems were defined after the French revolution, were individuals wanted to free themselves from the oppression of tyranny. The first system is called negative liberty, and is involved in the question “What is the area within which the subject - a person or group of persons - is or should be left to do or be what he is able to do or be, without interference by other persons?” To be negatively free means to be “free to a degree to which no man or body of man interferes with my activity”. To be free, as an individual, to do whatever is my will.
To what extent could Plato’s Republic be or not be justifiably characterized as a closed and authoritarian society without freedom? To begin with, the absolute theoretical basis required for complete understanding of the question and the further speculation on it consists of two important books: “The Republic” by Plato, where the philosopher introduces his conception of an “ideal state” and “The Open Society and its Enemies” by Karl Popper, the summarizing and systematizing overview of the original text. Let us start by considering Plato`s theory of ideal state. The main goal of Plato`s ideal state is an achievement of common good and happiness through the implementation of Idea of justice. By Plato, justice can only exist if every person
Perfection in a Society The term “dystopia” derives directly from the word utopian, which first was first noted to have appeared in the year 1516 in Thomas Mores well-known work Utopia (Xiaolan). The word utopia itself refers to a society that is typically set in a distant future and is implied to be the ideal or perfect world for all people in the world to live in. (Xiaolan) On the other hand, the word dystopia is said to be the opposite of utopian, meaning that while it’s still set in a distant future, it is the darker version of society that has begun to crumble at the seams due to the strict regulation of the world. In dystopian novels a society typically originates as a utopian society, with ideas and implications of making the world perfect for all people living, even if that means taking away basic human needs to accomplish their overall goal. However, in dystopian novels while the world may start out as a utopian society, this genre of literature is typically categories by the main character(s) having a sort of realization as to how wrong the world is around them and that perfect is not a world they want to live in for some reason or another.