The founder of Mohism was Mozi, better known to his adherents as “Master Mo.” He was greatly revered and obeyed by his peers and followers for his philosophical insight. Philosophers have argued in depth about whether Mozi or Confucius, should be considered the father of philosophy because they both brought something beneficial to Chinese philosophy. Confucius brought the idea of harmony occurring only when each person has proper behavior in their family and society, while Mozi enforced the ideas of morality: being judged by consequences and that people’s actions can only be right if they benefit the majority. Meaning if a person, does good in their life that benefited them personally, even if their action is good, it will be called wrong or incorrect,
These moral principles or rites are acts performed by human beings with the purpose of bringing ‘aligning’ in the world. This is understood as bringing order in the relationships between men and women, the young and the elderly etc. It can also be applied to relationships of non-human beings, such as animals, or even inanimate entities such as rain. Liji, from an ideological perspective, is meant to bring humanness and to unite beings. Liji gained in China an exceptional value.
In this essay, I will first describe the concept of spontaneity in both Mencian and Daoist views, and then I will argue that it is better to live spontaneously, in terms of psychological wellbeing and quality of decisions in life. From Mencian view, human nature (xing) is inherently good. Mencius 6A/2 states that humans’ good nature is like water’s nature to flow down, which means that even if we do bad things, our nature is still good. Mencius 2A/6 and 6A/6 name the goodness we all have as the “four hearts”, the heart of compassion, shame, deference (respect in 6A/6) and judgment. The four hearts are inherently present within us like part of us, and hence natural to us, as stated in 2A/6 and 6A/6.
Authentic leadership is an approach to leadership that emphasizes building the leader’s legitimacy through honest relationships with followers which value their input and are built on an ethical foundation. Generally, authentic leaders are positive people with truthful self-concepts who promote openness. By building trust and generating enthusiastic support from their subordinates, authentic leaders are able to improve individual and team performance. Leaders who treat their followers with fairness are seen as more effective. Leaders rated highly ethical tend to have followers who engage in more organizational citizenship behaviours.
Leadership style is a combination of trait, skill and behavior of leaders as they interact with their followers. Li Ka-Shing is a democratic and transformational leader. His method of conducting business is based on his values and beliefs. He said that each individual should do his or her job, and there should be fairness between the leader and the employees. He appreciates his workers by setting up grants for employees’ bonuses and higher salaries.
Value is an enduring belief that a specific mode of conduct or end-state of existence is personally or socially preferable to an opposite or converse mode of conduct or end-state of existence. It is nothing but a belief upon which a person acts by preference. Concepts in the social sciences revolve around human values. They play a vital role in the society since they are said to be the basis of human beings for leading a more fulfilling life. Our understanding of people’s motivation and attitudes are governed by our values which in turn influence our perceptions.
Different with guanxi, the collective culture in this term explained as doing something together for career advancement. In the application of guanxi, individuals drive themselves to achieve their goals, or to “better their own situations” (Leana & Van Buren, 1999:539). In other words, guanxi is exploiting social capital for good, which benefits every single member in the social structure (Belliveau, O’Reilly & Wade, 1996; Burt, 1992, 1997; Kostova & Roth, 2003; Useem & Karabel, 1986). Even though the focus of guanxi is social capital, it gives more benefit for the individuals who done quanxi deliberately (individual achievement is more important) (Lin, 1999:
(Madsen 244) Until 1992, Li Hongzhi and Falun Gong were members of the Qigong Research Association of China, which grew out of the boom in interest in qigong. (Beliefnet 1) Li Hongzhi withdrew himself and Falun Gong from this organization because of the more spiritual, rather than physical, emphasis that his practice took. (Beliefnet 1) According to Master Li, “There are different practices of qigong in China and in other countries, but they are primarily aimed at healing illnesses or keeping fit and maintaining good
In short, and according to MacIntyre’s definition of virtue, it is essentially an individual whom is virtuous, living life as a moral and honorable being. (MacIntyre 2007). Similarly, ‘Virtue Ethics’ are a set of ethics that is in relation to an actor’s character traits and habits. Virtue ethics are basically about an individual’s integrity, with intentions of becoming a good person. These set of character traits or habits may be assessed using rules or guidelines.
Functionings are states of being and doing such as being well-nourished, having shelter. They should be distinguished from the commodities employed to achieve them. Capability refers to the set of valuable functionings that a person has effective access to. Thus, a person’s capability represents the effective freedom of an individual to choose between different functioning combinations between different kinds of life that she has reason to value. One reason that social scientists and philosophers are so keen to specify a list is that it can be used as an index: by ranking all the different constituents of the flourishing life with respect to each other it would allow easier evaluation of how well people are doing.