Supreme Court Decisions Setting Precedent Discrimination may not seen as big a problem today, but people had to fight for that problem, and court cases set precedents for today. The case of Plessy versus Ferguson and Brown versus Board of Education helped change the way we view discrimination today. The case of Plessy versus Ferguson decided that segregation was legal as long as everything was equal. But on the other hand, Brown versus Board of Education included separate but equal schools made African-American children feel inferior to the white children. 1896, Supreme Court heard the Plessy versus Ferguson case.
However, Washington was not all about racial discrimination because he thought the Caucasian government would give an equality to African-American. However, it was not granted in Southern states. Also, Washington said that industrial education is important to African American in order to live better quality of life. On the
Prior to the passage of the amendments, the African American slaves were discriminated against because of their race because the white men believed that they were superior to them due to the idea of Social Darwinism. In this policy, the white men thought that they were more evolved than the African Americans. The discrimination continued after the ratification in the institution of Jim Crow laws (legalized with Plessy v Ferguson) in the south which advocated for separate but “equal” treatment for the freedmen. The freedmen also were faced with racial violence through the actions of the newly formed Ku Klux Klan who tried to further their racist goals through intimidation. Racial discrimination did not end following the ratification of the new
The men had contrasting ideas when it came to fighting for racial equality. Martin Luther King’s philosophies made more sense than Malcolm X’s philosophies, because King believed in working together and nonviolence protests to change the minds of the white society. Where Malcolm X believed in working separately to gain independence for the black communities, so
This idea of a white America surely put an emphasis on this notion of living up to the white standards that took blacks away from their own culture and tradition as they tried to assimilate to the American ways. This idea of assimilation sent an indirect message to other minorities that they may never fit the white standards and that no matter how much they tried, they wouldn't be considered American if they didn't have white skin. The Harlem Renaissance provided a platform for many African Americans to communicate their perspective of white oppression through various forms of art. In these works of art, they portray themselves to be “this debt [they] pay to human guile,” alluding to the false face that hid behind their masks (Source H).
The north was becoming increasingly industrial whereas the south still relied on a primarily agrarian lifestyle. This growing shift caused northerners to regard slavery as necessary and even detrimental to their own interests. The Free Soil movement was one such group that was against slavery but for personal and not moral or religious reasons. David Wilmot, a prominent Free Soiler, made this clear in a speech to Congress. He said that did not feel any sympathy or moral obligation to the slave but was against slavery because of the threat it presented to white labor (doc H).
The official ruling excluded agricultural and domestic laborers, which were primarily African American. White Americans were able to reap the benefits of social security and subsidized housing, while African Americans who needed it the most did not. Baldwin feared that another instance like the New Deal would reoccur. He believed that integration in itself would have little to no effect because although blacks and whites were coexisting, the individuals themselves ceased to see eye-to-eye and lacked mutual respect. Integration could potentially be used as a crutch, allowing Americans to argue that racism no longer exists simply because blacks and whites breathe the same air.
The way to handle the situations was from one extreme to another. Anti-Slavery was one of the major views in the North on slavery. These people believed that the institution of slavery was wrong and to get rid of it, popular sovereignty was the answer. Popular sovereignty was the idea that the future state government should decide if they are for or against slavery. The antislavery activists also thought that slavery could be contained, and eventually the act would die out.
Lincoln simply wants to bring both of the races together because he says that blacks rights are taken away from them. Douglas is against what Lincoln wants to do in the country. He thinks that we should not bring white and black people together because he believes that the country should be running by the white people in the government.
He also felt that the African-American male was not on the same level of equality as him, due to color and Lincoln’s belief in the higher intelligence of whites. In doing so, he showed his own personal racist opinion that whites were superior to blacks. Finally, the Declaration of Independence was also a source of Lincoln’s ideology on slavery and race. In his opinion, he believed that slavery did go against the principles of the document itself. He also felt that the issue of blacks not having equal opportunities in politics was not a contradiction.
“What can more certainly arouse race hate, what more certainly create and perpetuate a feeling of distrust between these races, than state enactments which, in fact, proceed on the ground that colored citizens are so inferior and degraded that they cannot be allowed to sit in public coaches occupied by white citizens?”- John Marshall Harlan. On May 18, 1896, the Supreme court passed the separate but equal act on a vote of 7-1. This allowed separate facilities to be made for whites and blacks. This was the result of the Plessy vs Ferguson case, where a man was forced out of a whites-only car because he had African descent. The Supreme court couldn’t find any differences in the train cars, yet separate facilities for blacks had a decrease in quality.
Trough out the 1960, the goal for racial became priority for many Afro-Americans who suffer from segregation or also called Jim Crow. After the Plessy v. Ferguson Supreme Court decision in 1896, all Afro-Americans will need to obey the law that stated separation of facilities or known as “separate but equal”. Since the 1900s, association like the NAACP fought for the equality in education, politics and economy in America between the races, in 1960 the nonviolent propaganda became a way to stop the segregation and start living as the constitution stated, with equality and freedom (Document 1). In 1954 the famous Supreme Court case Brown v. Board of Education the NAACP and Thurgood Marshall won against segregation when there was a concern about
“The New Jim Crow offers a devastating account of a legal system doing its job perfectly well. We have simply replaced one caste system with another one.” — Forbes Magazine “The New Jim Crow” sheds light on the racial amplitude within the war on drugs. It contends that federal drug policies unfairly target minorities, i.e. people of color. Due to this discrimination, people of color, black men particularly, are kept in a never ending cycle of living in poverty or behind bars.
States should follow the supreme court ruling because it supports the equal protection clause dictated within the 14th amendment. The Equal Protection Clause of the 14th Amendment prohibits states from denying any person within its jurisdiction “equal protection of the law”. In other words, the laws of a state must not discriminate. Although, the Equal Protection Clause was created during the post-civil war era to define the rights of freed slaves and to ensure their protection under the law. Throughout time, values have changed as people become more aware of the diversity of groups which exist and the extent of discrimination which follows these groups.