“Every skill and every inquiry, and similarly every action and rational choice, is thought to aim at some good; and so the good has been aptly described as that which everything aims. But it is clear that there is some difference between ends: some ends are activities, while others are products which are additional to the activities. In cases where there are ends additional to the actions, the products are by their nature better than activities.” (Aristotle’s Nichomachean Ethics, as translated by Crisp, 2000, p. #3) Aristotle was the first philosopher who wrote a book on ethics titled, Nichomachean Ethics. The quote above is the opening statement of this book. It is saying that in all that man does, he/she seeks some good as ends or means.
The Euthyphro is one of Plato’s classic dialogues. It is a well-verbalized piece which deals with the question of ethics, consisting of a conversation between Socrates and one other person who claims to be an expert in a certain field of ethics. It is additionally riddled with Socratic irony in which Socrates poses as the incognizant student hoping to learn from a supposed expert, when in fact he shows Euthyphro to be the nescient one who kens nothing about the subject being holiness. Plato's main goal is to edify us, and he believes firmly that cognizance only comes when we are able to justify and account for our true credences. Thus, edifying is not simply a matter of giving the right answers.
Both Plato and Descartes believe in Rationalism, and they also fear uncertainty. These two philosophers want to answer the same basic question, “What is the difference between opinion and certainty” (Palmer 39). Plato believes that all
In conclusion, it is shown that the ethics of Socrates and Plato can be understood by examining the works of the Crito, Meno and Phaedo. Plato 's philosophical concept in these three dialogues is mostly about denying what the self wants, either normal things like food and earthly desires or trying to gain knowledge, and instead, choosing what is just and right. This is Plato’s concept of a good life. From this quest for knowledge, virtue is obtained, and this is the main goal of philosophy in Socrates ' mind. Laws must be made in accordance with wisdom by those who practice philosophy, and must seek to benefit the city as a whole.
Aristotle advanced the philosophy of ethics, where he demonstrated that it is a means of achieving an end to happiness. However, happiness means many things to different people. To Aristotle, the most adequate way to pursue happiness is through the virtue of excellence. In his writings, Aristotle connected his therory of virtue to economics, and leadership as well. It is a matter of connecting ones personal ethics to that of ones business ethics., simply because Aristotle made no disticntion between ethics and politics.
The just individual doesn’t lust for everything but goodness. Thus, Socrates comes up with a new idea. He thinks that philosophers are the most appropriate people for that just people definition. Singpurwalla says that the philosopher, the paradigmatic just individual, is motivated to rule the city the philosopher aims not at his own personal good, but at instantiating goodness in the city. In addition to the definition and the nature of the justice, Plato also shows that justice is worthwhile.
According to Socrates man is inherently good and wrong decision come from unawareness because human do not know what is good - this idea is called ethical intellectualism. What is more virtue is equal to knowledge - so we are able to learn for example justice, bravery etc. Philosopher claimed also that the most important way to know the world is mind. According to him we do not knowing the thing but only the idea of this thing, therefore very important is to define as closely as possible things. Regarding to the God Socrates believed in daimonion (protective goddess) which every man has inside.
Two pieces from this time period, Plato’s Republic and Cicero’s Laws, focus on the knowledge needed in order to govern well and live the best kind of life. After analyzing both pieces, it can be concluded that knowledge of intellect and philosophical intuition, not necessarily just laws themselves, is needed in order to govern efficiently and achieve the most ideal type of life. Plato believes that in order to govern well,
Aristotle believes that when humans commit virtuous actions, they cannot be pained for those virtuous actions. If the human is pained because of an action in which the commit, then it is not considered virtuous. Given the right education, it should make us take desire in what is moral
It is plain to see that Plato doesn’t understand the logic behind this belief, shaping his worldview. Plato really emphasizes the greatness of philosophers in “Book VI” as he describes why they are the most ideal choice as a ruler. He writes that “when someone’s appetites are strongly inclined in one direction, we surely know that they become more weakly inclined in the others” (Republic 485d). This statement says that since philosophers are focused on wisdom, they care less about materialistic interests. Plato encourages a philosophic leader and rejects the idea of democracy.