The second meaning is that of "women-centeredness in society, such as in descent, place of residence, economy, politics, religion, family" (Siegetsleitner). Matriarchy is the opposite of patriarchy, a term that denotes the domination of male members of a society. However, this does not mean that matriarchy means that women are ruling over men. While patriarchies are mainly focussed on society and community ruling, Heide Goettner-Abendroth states that matriarchies are
The legal status of women in society, the different roles that each unique nation’s women played, and the possible education permitted and occupations available to these women will be discussed, as well as, their domestic atmospheres will be critically compared in this short essay to demonstrate the different treatment (if there were a difference) of women in both these imposing periods of ancient history. 2. Economic and legal standing Both the Roman and Egyptian societies in the ancient world were predominately ruled by the male gender, men were the rulers and lawmakers, in ancient Egypt, however, women were their own mistress and were accorded the same legal rights as men from the same social class. When it came to property and locus standi, women in Egypt enjoyed similar freedom in performing legal acts as women do in today’s modern society. All landed property was passed down through the female line, from mother to daughter.
In earlier times, feminism was more about representation of women in the political sphere and their voting rights. But Butler argues and says that it won’t be correct to describe women as one unified homogeneous group as each woman is different in interests, problems, desires and personality. According to her women cannot be a homogeneous group since they come from a wide variety of backgrounds sharing differences in class, ethnicity and race. The point holds much validity when we try to compare and equate the needs and problems faced by a poverty stricken mother from an African village to a wealthy businesswoman from the New York City. She would rather be able to identify with and relate more to a man from similar conditions than the supposed ‘sister’ from the polished society.
Their internal conflicts with cultural hybridity and their shame at the secrecy of their family, prompts Kingston and Rodriguez to use writing as means of reaching a catharsis. The first lines of Maxine Hong Kingston’s story begin with "You must not tell anyone," my mother said, "what I am about to tell you. In China your father had a sister who killed herself. She jumped into the family well. We say that your father has all brothers because it is as if she had never been born."
1. Introduction In the ancient world each society exercised different treatment towards women, today, unlike during the ancient world, women enjoy more freedom, rights, and equality. In this essay, the status of women in ancient Egypt will be compared to the status of women during ancient Rome. Academic sources will be relied on to provide the necessary actualities when one considers ancient civilisations. The legal status of women in society, the different roles that each unique region’s women played, and the possible education permitted and occupations available to these women will be discussed, as well as, their domestic atmospheres will be compared in this short essay to demonstrate the different treatment (if there were a difference)
2.4 Causes of Gender Inequality The degree and causes of gender inequality vary throughout the world. There are a number of complex factors that explain the existence of the gender inequality. Gender roles that give the impact of gender inequality are the main cause. Throughout history, people used to believe that like properties, women are owned. Whether they were considered the property of their fathers, brothers, uncles and/or eventually husbands, females were looked at differently.
Divorce is the action of legally dissolving a marriage and going in separate ways. According to www.theguardian.com “a brief history of divorce” in Britain, Before the 1850s divorce was largely open to men only and because it was very expensive it was open to the rich only. Then The 1857 Matrimonial Causes Act allowed ordinary people to divorce. During this time, it was difficult for women to divorce because they had to prove that their husbands had been unfaithful. Then in 1923 A private members’ bill made it easier for women to file for divorce for adultery, but they still had to prove.
Combe were married and Mr.Yaser Combe promised Mrs.Radhika Combe that he will pay for her annual maintenance but they were divorced and where Mrs. Radhika Combe demanded Mr. YaserCombe to pay her annual maintenance. Several years later, Mrs Radhika Combe filed an action against Mr. Combe to fulfill the promise. Since there was no contract, there was no consideration but for the first hearing court agreed to her demand under promissory estoppel. But the decision was re-appealed later. The famous English lawyer and judge reversed the case in favor of Mr. Combe.
The institution of marriage is a chief concern of Jane Austen’s novels, though she never married. This does not necessarily mean that she did not know what love is. This paper discusses about the Institution of Marriage and how this institution affected women, through Pride and Prejudice and Sense and sensibility. There were so many laws prevailing in Victorian Era, and they had a major impact on women. At that time laws were based on the idea that after Marriage a woman becomes the property of man and now he has to take care of her.
The parents’ marital issues is also indicated by the oldest daughter Marla, who mentions Mr. and Mrs. Pichowsky, a married couple that “got a divorce last year and moved.”(p.4, l.89). Dawn knows about Mr. and Mrs. Pichowsky and the reader is introduced to her thoughts and fear of her parents getting a divorce, which prompts her to convince her younger sister, Janie to come along with them “To have one last visit with Dad.”(p.4, l.80). Similar to the problems between the mother and the father, the reader get the sense that Dawn’s relationship with her father is not the best, as it is evident that they have a difficult time connecting expressed by Dawn herself: “I didn’t want to be alone with Dad. (…)And he never knew what to talk about with me so it was uncomfortable(…).”(p. 4, l.90 &91-92). The structure of the short story adds to this theme because the reader gets suspicious of the tense relationship between daughter and father.