As stated by Richard Peters in ‘Ethics and Education’, “school is not like a concentration camp to whose aims the inmates must for ever be hostile”. (Peters, 1966, p. 258) If students are enabled to voice their opinions regarding how topics are delivered, their attentiveness may improve. This reinforces the learner-centred attitude of curriculum as process. Stenhouse articulated that “Education is concerned with unexpected outcomes”. (Stenhouse, 1975) Individuality is a large aspect of curriculum as process.
The augment in the science and technology, political,economic and societal needs increased the evidence of a self-cent-redness, non-sense of purpose and increased hopelessness among children and youth. This causes the failing to find the meaning in life,increase in violence and addictions,and lawlessness. The present education gives importance only to material aspects of life which is not the sole aim of education. Hence the value based education is the needed for the successful understand of the inner personality of the students as against to just academic excellence. It is stressed to realize the human values in schools
Tests will have washback effects for some learners and some teachers, but not for others. According to Pearson (1988), public tests had an influence on behaviors, attitudes and motivation of the students, teachers, and also parents. He also added that the direction in which washback works must be from testing to teaching and learning. Besides washback’s effect on the instructors, learners and parents, it is also detrimental in the development of curriculum, teaching methods and learning strategies according to Biggs (1995). On the other hand, Spolsky (1994) claimed that “backwash is better applied only to accidental side-effects of examinations, and not to those effects intended when the first purpose of the examination is control of the curriculum” (p.55).
The uses of teaching aids are very important and teacher needs to challenge him/herself to try something new on the teaching aids in order to attract students’ interest effectively. Teaching science using written aids sound boring but it is important because most of the times students are dealing with words in learning especially in learning science it has scientific words that students need to understand. Written is a past participle of write, write is to make letters or numbers on a surface, especially using a pen or pencil whereas aid is something, especially a piece of equipment, that helps you do something. (Advanced English Dictionary, 2009). Written aid is tool consist characters that help in learning process.
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background of the Problem Classroom assessment of students learning is an important component of any education system. The overall aim of assessment is to enhance attainment of educational objectives through meaningful learning. There is a global mistrust of paper and pencil based examination. This kind of assessment is however, criticised for its detrimental effects on students’ learning. Adams (1996) point out that paper and pencil particularly tests and examinations focus on irrelevant concepts that do not impact directly on students’ lives; they encourage superficial, rote learning and negligence of higher order thinking skills such as reasoning, problem solving and independent inquiry.
While it is a bit of an exaggeration, students clearly feel that classroom-based speaking practice does not prepare them for the real world. Is why I choose to do small but very concrete steps on how to express a simple idea like What are the priorities on your life?, giving the example with my ideas on the board as the same time it was expressed, the students seemed to get the activity instruction clearly so they proceeded to wrote and then speak with a partner about they priorities they wrote down before. Research by Peter Skehan5 on Task-based Learning shows that giving student’s preparation time significantly increases the range of language used in the performance of the task, whereas the accuracy of the language is not as influenced. If this is so, then it seems sensible to give students preparation time when encouraging them to use new language.
Actually, Inductive approach was often correlated with Direct Method and Natural Approach in English teaching, therefore, the rules of the language were supposedly acquired out of the experience of the understanding and repeating examples which had been systematically graded for difficulty and put into a clear context” (Thornburry, 2002, p.50). With this approach, the learners were not taught grammatical or other types of rules directly but they were left to discover or induce rules from meaningful contexts provided by the teacher and their experience of using the language ( Richard& Platt,1997). The inductive approach related to subconscious learning processes similar to the concept of language acquisition. Learners learnt the language in the same way as children acquired their first or second
It assists my learners in learning and helps in identifying their strengths and weaknesses. It helps me to decide what information or skills students still need to learn. Basically, it drives the next instruction. I have also noticed that assessment is totally class specific. What might work for one batch would not work for another.
If one of them is poorly structured, or there are any faults in them, then they will with a negative effect. Richards (1993, p.49) also considers “Textbooks as source books rather than course book” Textbooks are not mere course books, they are definitely good sources, from where one may pick up valuable references in time of need. Contents and materials are indeed limited but their arrangement and sequence is very important.Good textbooks are designed in such a way that they may fulfill the expectations. Feeding teachers through an excellent and outstanding textbook, enrich students’ faculty of thinking, strengthen their imagination, and leaves a pleasant impact of joy and wonder….. 2.2 The Four Language Skills Cunnings worth says “The most suitable textbook for students will reflect as closely as possible the language content, language skills, and patterns of language use that are needed,” Language skills or the four basic skills(reading, listening, writing and speaking) should be the essentials of a good textbook.
Idealistically, the four basic skills are the most essential parts of every language learning curriculum. However, in practical terms, the very objective of inculcating these skills remain ignored in the flow of teaching of other literary contents. In the ESL class, teachers concentrate more on the syllabi contents which as being the key components to be asked in the written exams which mostly cover up the written English practice. Teaching of English through such exam oriented practice certainly affects on the interest of both the teacher and the learner. Teaching English in India has witnessed several methodologies, pedagogies and practices directing to the development of communicative competence.