Nicol and Macfarlane-Dick (2006) indicate that “formative assessment can promote the development of capacities and attitudes used in lifelong learning. Assessment-centred or student-centred learning environments also emphasize congruence between learning goals and what is assessed”. Formative assessment is going on all an ideal opportunity to give feedback on what understudies are figuring out how to distinguish accomplishment and areas for further work. Additionally, for the educator or teachers to evaluate effectiveness of instructing or teaching and provide a feed forward or to centre feasible arrangements. “Good feedback practice is not only about providing accessible and usable information that helps students improve their learning, but it is also about providing good information to teachers” (Nicol and Macfarlane, 2006, p. 214).
The learner is conscious that the language is being taught. While acquisition is referred to as the real communication. Language is developing naturally at the acquisition stage and the learner is subconscious that it is taking place. The learner may not know the rules of the language but is able to have a feeling for what sounds right. Hamayan recognizes that “the acquisition of language is a development process and there are predictable stages of language proficiency, and yet the learner may pass through the different stages at different times”.
Learning occurs in many ways and no two learners learn the same way. Different people possess different learning styles; they prefer some certain methods of learning over other ones, mostly while even not being aware of this fact. Ellis (1986) says "variability in language-learner language is the result of not only contextual factors, but of individual differences in the way learners learn an L2 and the way they use their L2 knowledge. It is probably accurate to say that no two learners learn an L2 in exactly the same way" (p. 10). Reid (1987) states that "learning styles refer to a pervasive quality in the learning strategies or the learning behavior of an individual" (p. 89).
In addition, Lev Vygotsky Socio-Cultural Theory states that students’ learning could be more effective if it is provided with support or scaffold. Information processing theory supplies the scaffold theory which is also a cognitive theoretical framework that focuses on how knowledge enters and is stored and retrieved from our memory. Cognitive psychologist believed that processes influence the nature of what is learned. They considered learning as largely an internal process, not an external behavior change. They looked into how learners receive, perceive, store and retrieve
Other theories which underpins authentic assessment is Experiential Learning Theory by David Kolb and Situated Learning Theory which was theorized by Lave and Wenger. Experiential learning occurs by making sense of direct everyday experiences. Concrete experiences provide the information that serves as a basis for reflection. On the other hand, Situated Learning Theory is learning in the same contexts in which concepts and theories are applied. Research has shown that real-life applied activities and problem-solving activities establish a contextual setting for many lessons, providing motivation and encouraging curiosity.
Feedback is a significant element in determination of education quality as well as in effective learning where it portrays the learning outcomes for students and the successes for the tutors. There are many aspects that concern educationists with regards to feedback but the relationship between perspectives of learning as well as teaching and feedback stands as the most important among them. Feedback should be conveyed in different modes in a learning environment but whatever mode chosen creates room for dialogue between the tutor and students. Therefore, it is only through feedback that the student engagement relationship with the feedback as well as the tutors’ perceptions of learning, teaching and assessment that such successes can be established. The Rationale Feedback is closely related to learning and teaching theories making it a significant element in learning despite the theories that may be adapted.
Informal learning also occurs in the middle of crucially important situations and such instances reflect the principles of SCT since they require a blending of individual traits such as intellectual drive, determination and self-confidence (Marsick and Watkins, 2015). While earlier social cognition studies examined cognition in groups and group actions rather than individual behaviour, more recent studies have acknowledged the presence of individual motivations and cognitive strategies within the group dynamic which has led to a more robust development of Social Cognitive Learning Theory (Akgün et al, 2003). Thus, HR practitioners with a good knowledge of SCT can better understand the impact of workplace interaction and can help promote effective learning within their
I can also see how confusing it could be when learning academically as well. Learning a language is one thing but understanding what the text is trying to portray is a whole different, more complex skill. As future educators, it is so important for us to keep this in mind when teaching English language learners. They may be able to read and pronounce words, but we must make a point to reassure ourselves that they understand what they are reading/saying
The studies which focused integration of employability skills in business curriculum were mostly for few skills or for smaller groups or for single institution. Some studies focused on the perceptional gap between students and faculties regarding employability skills. This study focused management institutes and the corporate. This study made the distinction employability skills required by the corporate and that imparted by management institutes to their students to make them more employable. Implications for Practice The study revealed huge
On the other hand, the initiator is important in Darseni’s theory because learning only takes place when the learner becomes self-directed and reflective. There needs to be a focus on the self, rather than the product, therefore, effective learning can only occur when it stems from the individual. Further, learner initiated experiences are more effective in ensuring engagement. The different expectation of the role of the learner stems from what the theories consider as the goal of