Weber was worried that this would eventually eradicate the intrinsic element to human existence which is humanity. Marx, on the other hand, argued that modern societies are characterised by capitalism and people who owns the means of production. Marx identified four successive modes of production which are primitive communism, ancient society, feudalism and capitalism. All these production is profoundly influenced by class relations. For instance, people who own the means of production exploit the labour.
Marx argues that the division of labor results in alienation, and he focused on the social inequalities between two social classes. Unlike him, Durkheim claims that the division of labor is not necessarily bad for the society, it creates a feeling of solidarity between group members. Marx is quite concerned with how people relate to the most fundamental resource of all, their own power of labor and the problems of alienation. The deprive of the ownership of their labor and their own thoughts, according to Marx, causes the alienation of workers from their nature and consequently causes conflicts between the two social classes. In his opinion, the division of labor and class inequality will eventually bring about the social stratification.
‘Focusing on capitalism and wage workers’ “estranged labour,” Marx broke with Hegels “ abstract” emphasis on consciousness and equation of objectification with alienation(Ritzer 2000:96) In the profound theory of alienation Marx continued to answer questions of the development of capitalism. He found that workers in a capitalist society do not possess the raw materials machines or factories in which they work with, but are owned by the capitalists in which the labours have to sell their ability to work in return of a wage. This arrangement of work shows four relations that lie at the centre of Marx 's theory of alienation 1, the worker is cut off or alienated from their productivity and not having any say in deciding what to do or actions to approach the productive activity that is given by the capitalist whom sets the conditions and speed that the labourer should be completing and having complete control the decision if the worker can work or not. Marx saw this as the ‘unequal relation between persons.’ (Ritzer 2000:101) 2, workers are alienated from the product meaning they have no control to how the product is being handled once it has left their station the labour is not free or enjoyable. ‘Marx saw all social life as bearing the imprints of material conditions’ (Ritzer 2002:107) 3, workers are alienated from others and their natural environment.
Conflict theory states that tensions and conflicts arise when resources, status, and power are unevenly distributed between groups in society and that these conflicts become the engine for social change. In this context, Marx’s conflict approach was developed in 19th century by Karl Marx (1818-83) .Marx argued wealth and power were unequally distributed in society and sought to explain how one minority group (1% ruling-class) in society maintained its dominance over the majority (working-class). Weber formulated a response to Marx’s theory. Weber saw that conflict didn’t overwhelmingly involve the economy, but that the state and economy together set up conditions for conflict. In this essay I will discuss the views of Conflict Theorists on education and the implications it does when dealing with curriculum and learners.
Framing social inequality, he ‘elaborates a theory of class that fuses the Marxian insistence of economic determination with the Weberian recognition of the distinctiveness of the cultural order and the Durkheimian concern for classification’ (Wacquant 2007, 270). By combining different theories, Bourdieu distances himself from the unilateral Marxist theory of classes. Instead of focusing on social inequality and a class based system simply on behalf of economic estate, he ‘argues that classes arise in the conjunction of shared position in social space and shared dispositions actualized in the sphere of consumption’ (ibid, 272). Thus, he draws upon the concepts of habitus, capital and fields when capturing and explaining social
At the certain stage of Johnson, the material productive forces him come in conflict with the existing relations of production. Consequently, it causes material determinism. Besides, the alienation in a class is also experienced by Johnson. Suroso quotes Marx as saying that alienation is the essence of the human mind to divorce human beings each other. People can not realize themselves in their work because the alienation.
In other words, they appear to be qualitatively distinct from other kinds of jobs in the market.” (Pg. 258). I will touch more on the dual market theory and its importance to creating stratification later in the paper. I would also like to touch on how the filling of these jobs within these markets can be, and often times is achieved through social reproduction. Social reproduction theory which “examine how inequality is reproduced over and over again in our everyday behavior and situations…Social reproduction identifies the barriers to social mobility, barriers that constrain without completely blocking lower and working class individuals’ efforts to break into the upper reaches of the class structure”(Pg.
The concept of his that I would like to focus on is alienated labor. Alienated labor is the result of the economic and social organization of capitalist production. Marx specifies four different types of alienation. These include: alienation from products produced, alienation within the production process, alienation of workers from their species being, and alienation of individuals from one another. The main two forms of alienation found in this article are alienation of workers from their species being and alienation of individuals from one another.
Home assignment #3 Educational system reflect social inequalities. And my analysis include sociological conflict theory like a key. And economical factor that affect educational, professional and social progression. Social conflict theory sees social life as a competition and focuses on the distribution of resources, power, and inequality. Social conflict theory is a macro-oriented paradigm in sociology that views society as an arena of inequality that generates conflict and social change.
This novel is a powerful indictment of modern capitalistic Indian society and feudal system and the oppression of the colonialist. (Bhoi 101) Coolie portrays the sufferings of an individual coolie in a class ridden society. (Kakati 39) It focuses on the inhuman attitude of the capitalist system which ignores the manhood in labors and treats them as mere ‘hands‘ in the machine of profit. (39) Machine, which