Complications Of Labor And Class Conflicts By Marx And Engels

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As demonstrated by Marx and Engels in the introduction and development of instruments of labour, the division of labour and private property divide of people into social classes (i.e. the exploiting class and the exploited class). Alienation and contradiction – expressed through class struggles – are oppressive and dehumanizing, yet absolutely necessary for the general progress of the human society (Marx and Engels, 1965). Marx explains social change in endogenous terms, stressing the internal dynamics of the mode of production (Moratiu and Ignat 2011). From the social point of view, processes are qualified as being endogenous when they occur within the social system, conflicts arising due to tensions between socially unequal groups and classes, inequality being powered by economically contradictions, which, ultimately, grow into social contradictions calling for change. In this scenario, we can point to labour and capital contradictions and, at the social level, contradictions between the proletariat and bourgeoisie, inevitably leading to class struggle, the Marxian framework being connected with an endogenous theory of social change (Valade, 2006).

Marx maintained that social inequalities typical of capitalism would end only when the working class had established the proletarian class. This, he argued, would bring in a classless, collectivist society, with distribution of social goods to each according to their individual needs. Marx’s model raises, but does not solve,
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