An invention by Bell Telephone laboratories called transistors were incorporated in these computers. In this case, second generation computers usually had a printer, a type of storage mainly disk or tape, operating systems, stored programs, and also a memory. These computers were generally reliable and were solid in design. During the course of the early 1960’s, many second generation computers were used in business, universities and government. With the use of transistors for the second generation, computers became smaller, increased speed, inexpensive, energy-efficient and more reliable than the first generation.
Computer is an electronic device that can process and stored data, computer comes from the term to compute, meaning to calculate. It is one word which is used frequently these days, and it is common knowledge that the wide spread use of computers is having a tremendous effect on all aspects of human life, both from an individual and a social point of view. With good reason, the computer is often compared with the human brain. Like the brain that devised it, a computer can take in data and process it. It can store the data either in raw form or in the form of processing results, and can deliver the raw of processed data to the outside world and demand.
This computer was designed for a single individual and thus the term, personal computer. Personal computers were used by employees in various roles including scientists and secretaries at Xerox. The Xerox Alto was the first computer to use a mouse. Additionally, the Ethernet was used to network the computers at Xerox. The CPU was the size of a small refrigerator and was designed to find under the desk with the mouse and keyboard on the desk.
According to Merriam-Webster dictionary the word Computer means: "an electronic machine that can store and work with large amounts of information". Computers that we use today have undergone many years of evaluation and development. The history of computer development is referred to the five generations, vacuum tubes, transistors, integrated circuits, microprocessors, and finally artificial intelligence computing devices. Moreover, each generation is characterized by a crucial technological development that basically changed the way computers operate. The most essential part in computer is the Operating System that enables us to use the computers.
With the methodical design of his Analytical Engine, Babbage meticulously established the basic principles on which today’s computers work. The Analytical Engine was capable of performing all four arithmetic operations as well as comparison. It had a number of features startlingly similar to those in today’s electronic computers. He included the concept of central processor, storage area, memory and input output devices in his design. The two revolutionary innovations incorporated in the Figure 1.6 Analytical Engine were comparisons and modification of stored information.
Accept it or not, the computer has invaded the work place. The origins and roots of computers started out as many other inventions and technologies have in the past. They evolved from a relatively simple idea or plan designed to help perform functions easier and quicker. According to Gary Masters “the first basic type of computers were designed to do just that to compute”. They
Computers are currently used in a majority of jobs and in society including, but not limited to, agriculture, architecture, art, commerce and global trade, communication, education, governance, law, music, politics, science, transportation, and writing. There are very few workplaces that do not use computers because computers are used for a vast array of things like organization, storage, retrieval of large amounts of information such as library catalogs or bank records, communication, and so much more (McIver 2002). They have ended some jobs, like information technology rooms, but it has also created some, like and IT specialist (Boston.com 2013). Computers have also had an impact on education. As time goes on they are becoming part of the classroom more and more and grant access to so much information that could be used.
Basic computers designed by mathematicians. Because there was no one who is computer engineer. So computers are used for computation of very simple tasks. In fact they have created abstract structure of computer task to help research the extent and restrictions of what can be computed. These abstract machines are named as "finite state machine".
These computers required a lot of space that was most probably equal to a room also these computers were very expensive to operate and in addition to this they used a lot of electricity. They also generated a lot of heat for which there had set many fans reduce heat. First generation computers relied on ‘’machine language’’. The program on these computers used to written by a single person. Also the output was also used to read by the same person its language is the lowest-level programming language understood by computers to perform operations and they could solve only one problem at a time.
Today, computers have become extremely common, with nearly every child having access to one. Through this extensive use, children become closely connected with computers, using them at home, at school, at a childcare center, or in any other setting. The traditional ways of learning have changed, as computers now play a large role in childhood development. Many wonder whether this is a good or bad thing. As computers play a larger and larger role in the lives of our children, it is important to ask what impact they are