Learning a new skill does not mean that you will use it unless you are motivated to do so. Motivational patterns can be seen in any group of people. They are categorized by two opposing motives: a motive to seek success and a motive to avoid failure. Most people are motivated to achieve success and to achieve a feeling of pride and accomplishment while others are motivated to ensure they don’t fail and experience the shame and humiliation related to failure. Three interactive components determine student’s motivation.
The Oxford English Dictionary defines motivation as ‘a reason or reasons for acting or behaving in a particular way’. Motivation seeks to explain the 'why ' of behaviour (Gorman, 2004). Moreover, motivation is the internal process whereby a person moves towards a certain goal or outcome. At a simple level, it seems obvious that people must work in order to achieve something. People are often motivated by incentives, markedly money.
Motivation and Emotion Motivation is an area of psychology that has gotten a great deal of attention in the recent years. This is because we all want to make a success of our lives, we all want to be seen as motivated, and we all want direction and drive. A motive or motivation can be defined as a need, interest, desire or want that leads someone in a certain direction. This motivation is what causes us to take action. Gorman (2004) says: “Motivation is an attempt to explain the ‘why’ of all forms of behaviour and is concerned with goal-directed behaviour.” Have you ever asked yourself the question, “What is my motivation for doing a specific task?” We need to know why we need to do something in order to effectively perform it.
E.M Anderman and L.H. Anderman (2010, p13) states that one of the most influential motivational theories is expectancy- value theory, which assumes that motivation is a combination of students ' expectations for being successful at a given task and their valuing of the task. One of the components of the Eccles et. al. expectancy –value model of motivation is intrinsic value (E.M Anderman and L.H.
Vroom, V. (2010, para. 2) states, “the expectancy theory of motivation provides an explanation as to why an individual chooses to act out a specific behavior as opposed to another”. The theory consist of three main components Expectancy, Instrumentality, and Valence. Each components share a similarity when dealing with one who is motivated in seeking greater rewards. The first component is Expectancy known as Effort, when an employee believes that high level of effort will lead to outcome of interest such as performance or success.
•This theory stresses upon the desires and observation; what is genuine and real is insignificant. •It accentuates on prizes or pay-offs. •It concentrates on mental lavishness where last target of individual is to accomplish greatest joy and least pain Limitations of the Expectancy Theory •The expectancy theory is by all accounts hopeful on the grounds that very much a couple of people see high degree relationship between execution and prizes. •The use of this theory is constrained as prize is not specifically connected with performance in numerous associations. It is identified with different parameters likewise, for example, position, exertion, obligation, education, and so on.
Extrinsic motivation is more of a short term form of motivation and used for getting started because as mentioned above, rewards will eventually lose their worth. Concept of Motivation The term “motivation” is derived from the word ‘motive’. The word motive as a noun means an objective, as a verb it means moving into action. Therefore, motives are forces which compel people to act in a way, so as to ensure the fulfillment of a particular human need at a time. Behind every human action there is a motive.
The very concept of motivation is a vast one, but in psychology, it is still not well clarified. Motivation cannot be directly observed and measured and is derived from changes in human behavior over time. Motivation, defined as "all the inner driving forces of man, including desires, drives and efforts and can also be called the inner state of the person who activates or moves it and includes effort, perseverance, and aims”. Motivation is an essential prerequisite for successful management; the desire of man to exercise power. Existing performance is also what managers can evaluate if they want to recognize the wishes and ambitions of the worker (Crossan et al., 1999).
Expectancy can be expressed as the trust that’s superior or greater efforts will harvest better performance. With competence, appropriate resources and essential support system, the expectancy of an individual can be enhanced in getting a task done properly. Instrumentality suggests that if a person believes that they performed well, a desirable outcome will come to them. Finally, valence signifies “value” and indicates the importance an individual have over an expected result (Redmond,
Of all the thoughts that affect human functioning, and standing at the very core of social cognitive theory, are self-efficacy beliefs, "people's judgments of their capabilities to organize and execute courses of action required attaining designated types of performances". Self-efficacy beliefs provide the foundation for human motivation, wellbeing, and personal accomplishment. This is because unless people believe that their actions can produce the outcomes they desire, they have little incentive to act or to persevere in the face of difficulties. Much empirical evidence now supports Bandura's contention that self-efficacy beliefs touch virtually every aspect of people's lives— whether they think productively, self-debilitatingly, pessimistically