The discourse analyst focuses on â€œan investigation of what that language is used forâ€, it means purpose and aim of communication, as has actually been mentioned before (Yule 1983: 1). Levels of analysis Crystal (1997: 15) mentions a few levels of analysis which are highly important for a detailed analysis of a text. Each level represents one area of linguistics such as lexicology or phonetics and phonology. On the basis of these areas different levels of analysis can be distinguished: phonetic and phonological, graphological, grammatical, lexical. Verdonk mentions importance of pragmatics and claims that â€œpragmatics is concerned with the meaning of language in discourse, that is, when it is used in an appropriate context to get particular aimsâ€ (Verdonk 2002:
There are a few rules to follow when it comes to delivering speech: first of all, one should keep in mind that the higher the position of the speaker, the more seriously they will be taken. To give out an effective speech and have an impact, the messenger should be confident and skilled. The conveyer of the speech should be a person with authority, a skilled individual who confident enough to speak up properly. That way, the message is surely going to get across safely. In addition, it is important to note that sometimes, interruptions can come in handy.
What is Communication: Basically communication is an exchange of information it may be emotional, visual, aural. This is the process of using words, sounds, signs, or behaviors to express your ideas, thoughts, and feelings to someone else. There are two main kinds of communication and these are verbal communication, non-verbal communication. Verbal communication is when people speaks with each other & non-verbal communication is all about the gestures of the people. What are types of communication: Verbal Communication Non-verbal Communication Verbal communication: Verbal communication is when people sending and receiving messages with words it includes writing and sign language as well.
Conversation analysis focuses on a fine grained analysis of the ways in which language is used, for example how people reply to a spoken invitations or the uses of a specific word or phrase. Some conversation analysis uses quantitative techniques. Cooperative principle describes how effective communication in conversation is achieved in common social situations, that is, how listeners and speakers must act cooperatively and mutually accept one another to be understood in a particular way. As phrased by Paul Grice, who introduced it, "Make your contribution such as it is required, at the stage at which it occurs, by the accepted purpose or direction of the talk exchange in which you are engaged" (Grice, 1975). Furthermore, the principle is
Achieving conciseness does not mean to loose completeness of message. It saves time. Conciseness means wordiness, i.e, communicating what you want to convey in least possible words without forgoing the other C’s of communication. Conciseness is a necessity for effective communication. Concise communication has the following features: It is both time-saving as well as cost-saving.
This will include both Oral as well as written forms of verbal communication. Communication is the act of conveying intended meanings from one entity or group to another through the use of mutually understood signs and semiotic rules. Verbal communication refers to the use of sounds and language to convey a message. It serves as a medium for expressing desires, ideas and concepts and is vital in all realms of learning. Verbal communication acts as a primary tool for expression between two or more people.
When people converse with other persons, they measure the success of their communication from the outcome (response) they get. Communication is considered successful when the speaker is aware of how he/she uses the language and the hearer is able to recognize the intended speaker’s meaning. By saying something to another person, people perform not only a certain communication purpose, but also a certain speech act. The study of speech acts is closely interrelated with pragmatics and sociolinguistics. According to David Crystal [7, p. 240], pragmatics is the study of language from the point of view of its users, especially of the choices they make, the constraints they encounter in using language in social interactions and the effects their use of language have on other participants in the act of communication.
Lado (1957:18) says that language is the system of speech sound by which human beings, communicate with one another. Meanwhile in the dictionary.com divides the meaning of language into some parts which are a body of words and the systems for their use common to a people who are of the same community or nation, the same geographical area, or the same cultural tradition, communication by voice in the distinctively human manner, using arbitrary sounds in conventional ways with conventional meanings; speech, any system of formalized symbols, signs, sounds, gestures, or the like used or conceived as a means of communicating thought, emotion, etc. Language is important thing for human being because it is a requirement for us to communicate, to interact, to share our ideas and information and also to built up the relationship among the others. In any language, including Indonesian, when we communicate with the people or read the books, we often see the relationship of meaning or semantic relation between a word with another word. The words in a language often have relationships form by chance, in other words, when each was not showing the relationship of meaning.
Besides that communication educate us to be more responsible and cautious when we are sounding or giving opinion about something. This is because we should be responsible for what we say that’s why we should always be careful with our wording, speaking tone and expression in order not to hurt or have a misunderstanding with our partner. We get to learn to be more confident and increase our self-esteem level when we start to communicate with peoples especially with foreigners rather than native people because we should have a language base such as English in order to communicate with foreigners from America or so
Language is a human system of communication that uses arbitrary signals such as voice sounds, gestures and written symbols. It is a system of sounds and symbols used to communicate ideas and feelings. This system consists of learned conventions that are slowly but constantly changing. The English language system consists of three subsystems: sound (phonology), words (morphology) and the way these words and sounds are arranged (syntax). Language is conventional, that is, it is accepted by a large number of people.