Endochondral ossification and long bone growth in humans Endochondral ossification is the process in which the embryonic cartilaginous model of most bones, which supplies the longitudinal growth and is slowly replaced by bone. Endochondral ossification allows a growing bone to bare weight during its development. The endochondral process of ossification provides a framework for a more rigid skeletal material. Long bones of the limbs and ribs develop by endochondral ossification. Characteristics of endochondral ossification include, the presence of a hyaline cartilage model of the bone and the presence of cartilage, along with the bone during the ossification process.
It is physiologically essential, as it maintains normal skeleton mass and repairs possible microdamages to the skeleton. The whole procedure occurs in discrete foci, called basic multicellular units (BMUs) (see Fig.6). It starts with a resorption phase which can last up to 4 weeks, where osteoclast (OC) precursors are recruited to the active site from precursors in bone marrow, and excavate a resorption cavity, limited by a border called cement line. Following this excavation, OCs die by apoptosis. After a brief reversal phase, osteoblast (OB) precursors come to the active site and fill the resorption cavity.
If a craniotomy has already been performed, the inner cortex can be harvested from the bone flap and used in the reconstruction, leaving the outer cortex to be placed back in its original position. This technique maintains the contour of the calvarium. If large quantities of bone are needed, bicortical grafts may be harvested, followed by splitting of the two cortices to double the surface of the graft. It is obvious that harvesting a bicortical calvarial graft would have the most complications hazard. Complications of calvarial grafts include surface deformity at the donor and/or recipient site and graft fracture during harvest.
Hard tissue injuries are injuries that involve the bone such as fractures. Hard tissue injuries are more severe. Surgery is sometimes needed depending on the severity of the injury. A torn anterior cruciate ligament is an example of a soft tissue injury that might require
In this phase, the wound contracts as new tissues are built. In addition, a new network of blood vessels must be constructed so that the granulation tissue can be healthy and receive sufficient oxygen and nutrients. In healthy stages of wound healing, granulation tissue is pink or red and uneven in texture. Dark granulation tissue can be a sign of infection, ischemia, or poor perfusion. In the final phase of the proliferative stage of wound healing, epithelial cells resurface the injury.
Shoulder Dislocation A shoulder dislocation happens when the upper arm bone (humerus) moves out of the shoulder joint. The shoulder joint is the part of the shoulder where the humerus, shoulder blade, and collar bone meet. CAUSES This condition is often caused by: A fall. A hit to the shoulder.
In order to produce this tissue, fibroblasts are sent to the site of the injury where they begin to construct a new collagen matrix, which acts as a framework for which the new tissue cells can grow on to, and into which a new network of blood vessels form, a process known as
The site of foramen and nutrient canal may be a weak point, which is prone for fracture (24, 25, 26). Any damage to the precise area of nutrient foramen or nutrient canal or nutrient artery by traumatic or iatrogenic reasons may result with delay in union or fracture healing or graft healing, because healing process is dependent on blood supply (9,10). By avoiding damage to this limited area of the cortex, better result and faster healing can be achieved. This descriptive study concurs and corroborates well with previous study
Pedicle screw placement is one of the most dangerous surgery operations and it could have permanent impacts on patients. Therefore, it causes the inefficacy of treatment or adverse damage to adjacent neurological structures [1-2]. There are two issues are important which should be considered for pedicle screw insertion to guarantee proper anchoring. First one is to select the correct screw size and second is to place it within the pedicle properly [3-5]. Currently, pedicle screw placement is performed employing a free-hand technique along with fluoroscopic guidance.
Ankle injuries are characterized by the sort of tissue - bone, ligament, or tendon - that is harmed. The ankle is the place three bones meet - the tibia and fibula of your lower leg with the bone of your foot. These bones are held together at the ankle joint by ligaments, which are solid flexible groups of connective tissue that keep the bones set up while providing the freedom of basic ankle movement. Muscles are attached to the bones by tendons, which provides support for stabilizing the joints and allowing your foot to move. A break in a bone or a set of bones is also depicted as a fracture.
Medial or Posterior Malleolus Fracture Treated With ORIF A malleolus fracture is a break (fracture) of the tibia, the large bone in your lower leg. The medial malleolus is the lower part of the tibia that you feel as the bump on the inside of your ankle. The posterior malleolus is the lower-rear part of the tibia that is closest to your heel.